COVID19 https://blog.iica.int/en en No existe seguridad alimentaria sin sanidad vegetal https://blog.iica.int/blog/no-existe-seguridad-alimentaria-sin-sanidad-vegetal <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">No existe seguridad alimentaria sin sanidad vegetal</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/140" hreflang="zxx">Caio Tibério da Rocha</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 04/11/2021 - 15:43</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a name="_Hlk39219192" id="_Hlk39219192"></a></span></span></span></p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“La protección de la salud de las plantas no debe ser un tema de interés solo para especialistas, ya que está vinculada a temas centrales de la agenda pública global como la reducción de la pobreza, la erradicación del hambre, la preservación del ambiente y el desarrollo económico. Hoy no se puede hablar de seguridad alimentaria sin hablar de sanidad vegetal, y este es el mensaje que queremos transmitirle al mundo.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Uno de los impactos que ha tenido la pandemia es que el mundo ha tomado consciencia, tal vez con más claridad que nunca, de la importancia de <strong>garantizar el derecho a la alimentación</strong>. La crisis sanitaria ha dejado al desnudo la <strong>fragilidad </strong>de los <strong>sistemas agroalimentarios</strong>. Y la disminución de la actividad económica ha tenido un efecto devastador sobre los medios de vida de millones de personas, lo que pone en riesgo la seguridad alimentaria global.</p> <p>Sin embargo, gran parte de la población mundial no está al tanto de algo que los ingenieros agrónomos conocemos muy bien: que no se puede hablar de <strong>seguridad alimentaria </strong>sin hablar de <strong>sanidad vegetal</strong>. Y es nuestro deber transmitir ese mensaje a las grandes audiencias. Los profesionales debemos tener un <strong>rol más activo</strong>, no solamente en el trabajo a favor de la sanidad vegetal, sino también en la <strong>comunicación </strong>de la cuestión, para que la opinión pública sepa que l<strong>as plantas contribuyen a un 80% de nuestra alimentación</strong>, además de ser la fuente de prácticamente todo el <strong>oxígeno </strong>que respiramos cada día.</p> <p>Resulta imprescindible, en ese sentido, <strong>concientizar </strong>a la gente sobre la necesidad de <strong>destinar recursos</strong> a esta materia y trabajar en la <strong>investigación y el desarrollo</strong>. El foco debe ser la <strong>prevención </strong>de las enfermedades, lo que contribuye al acceso a los alimentos y también a enormes ahorros económicos. La realidad nos demuestra una y otra vez que no podemos dar por garantizada la salud de las plantas que sostienen la <strong>nutrición humana</strong>.</p> <p><img alt="Ilustración bananas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f2b6a206-f406-4072-a569-5f770b4d47a8" height="201" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Ilustr_Caio.jpg" width="302" class="align-left" />En consecuencia, la protección de la salud de las plantas no puede ser un tema limitado al debate entre especialistas en ámbitos académicos o técnicos, porque está directamente vinculado con las cuestiones que hoy la comunidad internacional considera las más <strong>importantes </strong>y <strong>urgentes </strong>de la <strong>agenda pública</strong>: la reducción de la pobreza, la erradicación del hambre, la preservación del ambiente y el desarrollo económico.</p> <p>El mensaje debe ser claro y directo: la <strong>importancia </strong>de la <strong>sanidad vegetal</strong> es tal que su <strong>impacto </strong>es <strong>decisivo </strong>incluso sobre la alimentación de aquellas personas que no tienen a los productos de origen vegetal directo como el componente primordial de su dieta. Es que la carne o los productos lácteos son producidos a través de la <strong>cría de animales</strong>, que simplemente no podrían crecer si no tienen a disposición <strong>plantas saludables</strong> o no se alimentan de piensos de calidad (que son de origen vegetal) para <strong>desarrollarse</strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid2" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Las principales víctimas de las plagas y enfermedades de las plantas son los más vulnerables: tanto quienes pasan hambre en las ciudades como los pobladores rurales pobres, que tienen en la agricultura su principal o su única fuente de alimentos y de ingresos.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Acertadamente, la Organización declaró al 2020 como el Año Internacional de la Sanidad Vegetal y, dada la situación global de la pandemia, decidió extenderlo al primer semestre de 2021.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="background:#002060; border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:none; width:587px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:60px; background-color:#002060; border-top:2px solid #5b9bd5; border-right:2px solid #5b9bd5; border-left:2px solid #5b9bd5" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:white">Las plagas y las enfermedades que afectan a las plantas provocan que hasta un 40% de los cultivos alimentarios se pierda, lo que ha sido cuantificado en unos 220.000 millones de dólares anuales por las Naciones Unidas.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Más allá de los números, siempre fríos, las principales <strong>víctimas </strong>de las <strong>plagas </strong>y <strong>enfermedades </strong>de las plantas son los <strong>más vulnerables</strong>: tanto quienes pasan hambre en las <strong>ciudades </strong>como los pobladores <strong>rurales </strong>pobres, que tienen en la agricultura su principal o su única fuente de alimentos y de ingresos.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Así como el <strong>Covid-19</strong> puso en primer plano la necesidad de mantener la <strong>higiene </strong>para evitar la propagación de <strong>enfermedades infecciosas </strong>que afectan a las <strong>personas</strong>, esta también debe ser una oportunidad para <strong>concientizar </strong>a la población mundial sobre la importancia de la <strong>higiene </strong>para preservar la <strong>sanidad vegetal</strong>.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><img alt="Ilustración bananas 2" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="983b788e-37c1-4f8d-82af-9a318be18423" height="208" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Ilustr_Caio2.jpg" width="291" class="align-right" />La enfermedad del banano es otro ejemplo de <strong>pandemia </strong>que tenemos a mano, con mucho menos espacio en los medios de comunicación que la de Covid-19, pero que también tiene un fuerte <strong>impacto</strong> <strong>social </strong>y <strong>económico </strong>en todo el mundo, al ser clave para la seguridad alimentaria global y para la subsistencia de millones de pequeños productores agrícolas. Hoy la <strong>banana </strong>enfrenta su amenaza más grave en décadas: la cepa raza 4 tropical (<strong>R4T</strong>) del hongo <strong>fusarium </strong>está devastando las plantaciones de muchos de los <strong>135 países</strong> donde se cultiva.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“La cepa raza 4 tropical (R4T) del hongo fusarium está devastando las plantaciones de muchos de los 135 países donde se cultiva. Esta enfermedad ataca a las plantaciones de banana Cavendish, que abarca el 50 por ciento de la producción mundial y es la única que se comercializa en América Latina y el Caribe.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Esta enfermedad ataca a las <strong>plantaciones </strong>de banana <strong>Cavendish</strong>, que abarca el 50 por ciento de la producción mundial y es la <strong>única </strong>que se <strong>comercializa </strong>en <strong>América Latina y el Caribe</strong>. La R4T se originó en el sudeste asiático y ya fue detectada en América Latina, en plantaciones del <strong>norte de Colombia</strong>. Se <strong>transmite </strong>a través del <strong>suelo </strong>y hoy <strong>no tiene cura</strong>, por lo cual la <strong>higiene </strong>de quienes visitan las <strong>plantaciones </strong>de banana es la única solución conocida para <strong>evitar </strong>su <strong>propagación</strong>.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">El <strong>Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura</strong> (IICA) es uno de los integrantes de una <strong>alianza </strong>a nivel <strong>global </strong>con actores <strong>públicos </strong>y <strong>privados</strong>, que está trabajando en el desarrollo de conocimiento, tecnologías y mecanismos que permitan encontrar una <strong>solución científica</strong> definitiva, que posibilite la <strong>erradicación </strong>del hongo. Y es justamente la <strong>comunicación </strong>y la <strong>educación </strong>para pequeños productores y consumidores una de las <strong>herramientas fundamentales</strong> que la alianza propone utilizar.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><strong>Las implicancias de la sanidad vegetal son múltiples</strong></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Mantener <strong>sanas </strong>las <strong>plantas </strong>que sostienen la seguridad alimentaria resulta un <strong>requisito ineludible</strong> para abrir las puertas del <strong>comercio </strong>y garantizar el acceso a los <strong>mercados</strong>, muy especialmente de <strong>productores chicos y medianos</strong> de países en desarrollo. El papel de los ingenieros agrónomos, entonces, resulta clave no sólo en las áreas rurales, donde los alimentos se cultivan, sino también para verificar las condiciones de transporte de los mismos.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Por otro lado, la pandemia hizo crecer en las áreas urbanas la <strong>conciencia </strong>sobre la importancia de mantener una <strong>relación armónica</strong> con la naturaleza y hoy existe una <strong>demanda </strong>cada vez mayor de <strong>alimentos </strong>que lleguen al consumidor con <strong>garantías </strong>respecto a la forma en que fueron producidos. </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Debemos invertir más en investigación científica, de manera que los productos fitosanitarios sean un aliado en el combate a las plagas, aseguren la sostenibilidad de los sistemas agrícolas y garanticen la supervivencia de la biodiversidad.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Se deben compartir <strong>buenas prácticas agrícolas</strong> para mantener las<strong> plantas sanas </strong>al tiempo que se asegure la <strong>preservación </strong>del <strong>ambiente</strong>. No puede haber un dilema en ese sentido. Debemos <strong>invertir </strong>más en investigación científica, de manera que los productos fitosanitarios sean un aliado en el <strong>combate </strong>a las plagas, aseguren la <strong>sostenibilidad </strong>de los sistemas agrícolas y garanticen la supervivencia de la <strong>biodiversidad </strong>a la que tanto daño le ha hecho el hombre. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Los ingenieros <strong>agrónomos</strong>, entonces, tenemos un <strong>rol </strong>cada vez más <strong>trascendente</strong> para el <strong>planeta </strong>y para las <strong>personas</strong>. Debemos estar a la altura.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><em><strong>Nota</strong>: este artículo fue publicado originalmente en http://www.cpia.org.ar/agropost/nota/98 y se reproduce con autorización del Consejo de los Profesionales del Agro, Alimentos y Agroindustria (CPIA) y del autor.</em></p> <p><br /> <img alt="Caio Rocha" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="80ad6a0d-772b-43d9-a783-2e3589406a98" height="124" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Caio_Rocha.png" width="124" class="align-left" /><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Caio Tibério da Rocha </span></span></span></i></b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">es Representante en Argentina y Coordinador Regional para la Región Sur (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Uruguay y Paraguay) del Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura, IICA.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Nota</span></span></i></b><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: Las opiniones expresadas en este blog son responsabilidad del autor y no reflejan necesariamente la opinión del IICA.</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Si tiene preguntas o sugerencias de mejora del BlogIICA favor contactar a los editores: </span></span></i><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int"><i><span lang="es-419" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:blue">Joaquín Arias</span></span></span></i></a><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> y </span></span></i><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int"><i><span lang="es-419" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:blue">Viviana Palmieri.</span></span></span></i></a></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-systems" hreflang="en">FOOD SYSTEMS</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=121&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="W_zeVtZ8LrasASamIk4MA1a7zDt87frri4vHX8rrOv0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 16:47:22 +0000 vpalmieri 121 at https://blog.iica.int Estrategia Sanitaria Dirigida hacia la Agricultura Familiar en América Latina y el Caribe https://blog.iica.int/blog/estrategia-sanitaria-dirigida-hacia-agricultura-familiar-en-america-latina-caribe <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Estrategia Sanitaria Dirigida hacia la Agricultura Familiar en América Latina y el Caribe</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/126" hreflang="zxx">Rigoberto Carrión</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 03/26/2021 - 17:31</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="Una salud" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="709ea7f6-d9d1-4ba7-9929-9b4d305c7651" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/foto%20una%20salud_0.jpeg" /></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>La producción pecuaria familiar (PPF)</strong> es reconocida como la forma de producción animal más común a nivel mundial. Asimismo, se destaca que este tipo de producción representa un aporte importante a la seguridad alimentaria, convirtiéndose en una herramienta relevante para la superación de la pobreza y la sustentabilidad en comunidades rurales, vinculadas a este tipo de explotación.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4f81bd; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4f81bd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="border:none"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><i><span lang="ES" style="border:none; font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Es necesario el estudio del aporte de la Agricultura Familiar Campesina a la producción animal, el desarrollo de estrategias orientadas al fomento productivo y el diseño de programas sanitarios vinculados al control de enfermedades animales, reconociendo que los impactos de estas y de las acciones para su control, son diferentes a los que pueden identificarse en sistemas de producción tecnificados.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="border:none">Según la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), <strong>la Agricultura Familiar Campesina </strong>se define como una forma particular de organizar la agricultura, ganadería, silvicultura, pesca, acuicultura y pastoreo, la cual es administrada y operada por una familia y, sobre todo, depende preponderantemente del trabajo familiar, donde se combinan funciones económicas, ambientales, sociales y culturales<sup>1</sup>.</p> <table class="MsoTable15Grid4Accent1" style="background:#0070c0; border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:1px solid #4f81bd; width:664px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; background-color:#0070c0; border-top:1px solid #4f81bd; border-right:1px solid #4f81bd; border-left:1px solid #4f81bd" valign="top"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><b><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:white">En América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), la Agricultura Familiar Campesina (AFC), representa cerca del 81% de las explotaciones agrícolas; proveyendo entre un 27% y un 67% del total de la producción de alimentos, ocupa entre el 12% y el 67%de la superficie agropecuaria, generando entre un 57% y un 77% del empleo agrícola en la Región<sup>2</sup> , donde la ganadería aporta entre el 20% y el 40% de la producción agrícola<sup>3</sup> . </span></span></span></span></b><b><span lang="IT" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="IT" xml:lang="IT"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:white"> </span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify">A pesar de su importancia económica, social y cultura, la Agricultura Familiar Campesina no ha sido objeto de estudio o cuantificación respecto al aporte que hace la producción animal en estas unidades productivas, ya sea a nivel global, regional o país. La evaluación de este componente resulta fundamental para el desarrollo de estrategias orientadas al fomento productivo y el diseño de programas sanitarios vinculados al control de enfermedades animales, ya que los impactos de estas y de las acciones para su control, son diferentes a los que pueden identificarse en sistemas de producción tecnificados.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4f81bd; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4f81bd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="border:none"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><i><span lang="ES" style="border:none; font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">El cambio climático y sus manifestaciones, como los fenómenos meteorológicos catastróficos y la variabilidad de los climas, tiene consecuencias que ponen en riesgo la salud, afecta los suministros de agua y alimentos, al mismo tiempo que provoca cambios en la distribución de los brotes de enfermedades infecciosas o las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes relacionadas con los cambios de los ecosistemas.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Existen pruebas concretas de que las actividades humanas están afectando el medio ambiente, lo cual tiene graves repercusiones en la <strong>salud pública</strong>. <strong>El cambio climático </strong>tiene consecuencias que ponen en riesgo la salud, tales como los fenómenos meteorológicos catastróficos, la variabilidad de los climas, que afecta a los suministros de agua y alimentos, los cambios en la distribución de los <strong>brotes de enfermedades </strong>infecciosas o las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes relacionadas con los cambios de los ecosistemas.</p> <table class="MsoTable15Grid4Accent1" style="background:#0070c0; border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:1px solid #4f81bd; width:664px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; background-color:#0070c0; border-top:1px solid #4f81bd; border-right:1px solid #4f81bd; border-left:1px solid #4f81bd" valign="top"> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="tab-stops:21.3pt 426.0pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><b><span lang="PT" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="PT" xml:lang="PT"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:white">Se </span></span></span></span></b><b><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:white">conoce que el 60% de las enfermedades infecciosas humanas son de origen animal (tanto domésticos como silvestres), y que el 75% de las enfermedades emergentes son de origen </span></span></span></span></b><b><span lang="NL" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="NL" xml:lang="NL"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:white">zoon</span></span></span></span></b><b><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:white">ótico, vinculados a animales domésticos, de compañía, deporte, trabajo y silvestres, que actúan como reservorio; en tal sentido, se considera que estos patógenos tienen una mayor probabilidad de asociarse con procesos emergentes y vincularse directamente al cambio climático y medioambiental.</span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="border:none">En ALC las catástrofes naturales, <strong>las enfermedades transfronterizas de animales</strong> (ENTRAS) así como las crisis socioeconómicas son recurrentes. Acrecentados por el cambio climático, los<strong> desastres naturales </strong>han presentado un aumento significativo en la región en los últimos años, lo que ha agravado la inseguridad alimentaria y nutricional de las poblaciones más vulnerables, con escasa capacidad de recuperación, debido a la pobreza y la poca preparación ante los riesgos climáticos, lo cual no permite que la población tenga el tiempo suficiente para reponerse<sup>4</sup>. </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4f81bd; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4f81bd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="border:none"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><i><span lang="ES" style="border:none; font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">El enfoque de intervención en las unidades productivas debe estar en línea con el concepto de “Una Salud”, ya que en la producción pecuaria familiar PPF se hace evidente el vínculo entre la salud de animales domésticos, la salud de las personas y la salud del ecosistema, representado por la salud de los animales silvestres.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="border:none">En este sentido, el abordaje de la <strong>salud animal</strong> requiere de una caracterización de los sistemas de producción, tomando en consideración los riesgos sanitarios relacionados al tipo de sistemas productivos y la comercialización de animales vivos y subproductos pecuarios, que impliquen movimientos entre predios y territorios<sup>6</sup>. </p> <p>En estos sistemas productivos pueden darse las condiciones propicias para la emergencia o reemergencia de nuevos patógenos, que sean una amenaza no solo para la salud animal, sino también para la salud pública y el medioambiente. En estas unidades productivas, generalmente conviven de forma cercana con las personas de la familia animales domésticos de diferentes especies, mascotas, de trabajo, deportes, entre otros, y existe una alta probabilidad de contacto con animales silvestres. Por lo tanto, cuando existen <strong>deficiencias en bioseguridad,</strong> se crean las condiciones propicias para el contacto entre individuos de diferentes especies, y el <strong>intercambio de patógenos</strong>.</p> <p>En este contexto, cualquier intervención que se realice en la producción pecuaria familiar (PPF), ya sea para mantener o mejorar sus estándares productivos, o para mantener o mejorar su condición sanitaria, debe considerar la definición de una línea base que incorpore la cuantificación de elementos como el aporte de la producción animal a la economía del hogar y su aporte a la seguridad alimentaria, la identificación de los peligros sanitarios (para los animales, las personas y el medioambiente) y la inocuidad de los productos de origen animal que generan. El enfoque en estas unidades productivas también debe estar en línea con el concepto de <strong>“Una Salud”</strong>, ya que como se mencionó, en la PPF se hace evidente el vínculo entre la salud de animales domésticos, la salud de las personas y la salud del ecosistema, representado por la salud de los animales silvestres. <br />  </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4f81bd; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4f81bd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="border:none"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><i><span lang="ES" style="border:none; font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Bajo el paradigma de “Una Salud”, concepto que reconoce los vínculos entre el ser humano, animales y el ambiente, resolver los problemas de salud implica la implementación de programas, políticas y legislación e investigación multisectorial para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades manteniendo la integridad de los ecosistemas y el beneficio de los animales y del ser humano.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="border:none">En este escenario, donde el Estado cuenta con recursos y experiencia limitados, se hace necesario promover <strong>alianzas estratégicas</strong> innovadoras entre los sectores público, privado y académico, con el objetivo de promover los programas de investigación y desarrollo que demanden estos sectores para mejorar sus procesos o prestación de servicios, aportando soluciones y recomendaciones a la problemática que representan los distintos sistemas productivos, participando activamente en la prevención coordinada de las enfermedades animales y de las zoonosis. Estas últimas tienen un fuerte impacto sobre la salud pública, salud animal y medio ambiente, bajo el paradigma de <strong>“Una Salud”</strong>, concepto que reconoce los vínculos entre el ser humano, animales y el ambiente, y según el cual abordar los problemas de salud implica la implementación de programas, políticas y legislación e investigación multisectorial para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades manteniendo la integridad de los ecosistemas y el beneficio de animales y ser humano<sup>7</sup>. </p> <p style="border:none">Hoy en día la <strong>colaboración intersectori</strong>al es clave en el éxito de las estrategias de sanidad animal, y las asociaciones entre los sectores público y privado son un claro ejemplo de ello, los objetivos de los programas de control y erradicación de enfermedades animales giran en torno a cuatro ejes fundamentales: </p> <ol> <li style="border: none;">limitar las pérdidas económicas y asegurar ingresos a los productores, </li> <li style="border: none;">evitar la transmisión de enfermedades entre los animales y al ser humano, </li> <li style="border: none;">producir alimentos inocuos y de calidad, y </li> <li style="border: none;">reducir las barreras sanitarias<sup>8</sup>.</li> </ol> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4f81bd; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4f81bd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="border:none"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><i><span lang="ES" style="border:none; font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">El clave generar información tanto para los productores como para el sector público, permitiendo a ambos la toma de decisiones y generación de estrategias basadas en evidencia científica, actuando en forma colaborativa y transparente, para reforzar los vínculos entre los sectores público y privado.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify">La vigilancia de las enfermedades animales está muy relacionada con la recopilación continua de <strong>información</strong> desde el sector privado, para la toma de decisiones informada y estratégica. Así, las Universidades pueden desempeñar un rol fundamental en la vigilancia y gestión de enfermedades animales a nivel local, regional o nacional, generando información crucial tanto para los productores como para el sector público, permitiendo a ambos la toma de <strong>decisiones</strong> y generación de estrategias <strong>basadas en evidencia científica</strong>, actuando en forma colaborativa y transparente, reforzando y mejorando los vínculos entre los sectores público y privado.</p> <p>Una alianza en este sentido podría promover la investigación, la innovación y el desarrollo de conocimientos estratégicos, aplicando un enfoque multidisciplinario con el objetivo de superar la brecha existente en la Agricultura Familiar Campesina (AFC) y la producción pecuaria familiar (PPF). Esto permitiría evaluar las principales amenazas sanitarias potenciales y endémicas, en función de la vulnerabilidad de las unidades productivas en los diferentes escenarios, y facilitaría a los tomadores de decisiones direccionar los programas nacionales de fomento productivo y de desarrollo rural para apoyar los procesos de producción y comercialización de productos y subproductos pecuarios, además de ser un apoyo para el diseño de programas de prevención, control y erradicación de enfermedades animales, que vayan en directo beneficio de la PPF.</p> <p>Los desafíos en esta área son muchos, desde <strong>mayor conocimiento y caracterización de la PPF </strong>a nivel país y región, conocer los principales peligros sanitarios que afectan estas unidades productivas, sus impactos y consecuencias, caracterizar la PPF respecto a su cadena de valor y vulnerabilidad, y la implementación de medidas de bioseguridad entre otras.</p> <p>Otro ámbito es <strong>el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de vigilancia </strong>para la detección precoz de enfermedades, el bienestar animal y el uso racional de antibióticos, como papel clave en el enfoque de Una Salud que los Organismos Internacionales han fomentado en la última década. A través de la implementación de estrategias orientadas al desarrollo, protección y promoción de la salud, incluyendo la prevención y control de enfermedades así como la protección del medioambiente, se busca el equilibrio entre la producción primaria y el procesamiento de alimentos de origen animal.<br />  </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4f81bd; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4f81bd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p style="border:none"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><i><span lang="ES" style="border:none; font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">El rol de los Organismos Internacionales es clave para apoyar a los países en la articulación de políticas de desarrollo agropecuario y gestión ambiental, con las políticas de seguridad alimentaria y salud pública, con el objetivo de desarrollar capacidades locales para análisis de riesgo, alerta temprana y promover sistemas de información eficientes y adecuados a los recursos de cada institución.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>El impacto de las enfermedades animales sobre las comunidades rurales y pequeños productores puede ser devastador y representa un obstáculo para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria y la calidad de vida de estas comunidades más vulnerables. Por este motivo el <strong>rol de los Organismos Internacionales </strong>es clave para apoyar a los países en la articulación de políticas de desarrollo agropecuario y gestión ambiental, con las políticas de seguridad alimentaria y salud pública, con el objetivo de desarrollar capacidades locales para análisis de riesgo, alerta temprana y promover sistemas de información eficientes y adecuados a los recursos de cada institución. </p> <p>En este contexto, los Organismos Internacionales y Regionales especializados en sanidad animal deben contar con mecanismos para fomentar y facilitar la coordinación entre ellos con el objetivo de apoyar a los países miembros. La cooperación técnica, con programas y estrategias de innovación dirigidas a apoyar programas sanitarios de prevención y control de enfermedades animales y la inocuidad de los alimentos, debe fomentar y crear instancias de análisis, discusión e intercambio de información para promover la <strong>cooperación Sur-Sur</strong> y el uso de recursos que siempre son limitados para todos. <br />  </p> <p><em><strong><img alt="Riboberto Carrion" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1500a9e7-6b75-4cf6-af69-ae242ed1a10d" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Rigoberto_bio.png" class="align-left" />Rigoberto Carrión </strong>es Médico Veterinario y docente universitario en el área de clínica y reproducción animal en distintas universidades. Fue consultor de la FAO por mas de 10 años y coordinador de proyectos en Fraunhofer Chile Research. Su labor ha estado enfocada al desarrollo e implementación de estrategias dirigidas a fortalecer y sensibilizar a los países de la región en la necesidad de perfeccionar y modernizar sus programas nacionales de sanidad animal, para responder a los requerimientos y tendencias internacionales de inocuidad y calidad de alimentos de origen pecuario. </em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>Nota: Las opiniones expresadas en este blog son responsabilidad del autor y no reflejan necesariamente la opinión del IICA.</em></strong></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:1px solid black; width:589px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:1px solid black; border-right:1px solid black; border-left:1px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span lang="es-419" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419">Si tiene preguntas o sugerencias de mejora del BlogIICA favor contactar a los editores: </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="text-decoration:underline"><i>Joaquín Arias</i></a><strong><i><span style="font-weight:normal"> y </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="text-decoration:underline"><i>Viviana Palmieri.</i></a></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><strong>REFERENCIAS</strong></p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>1</sup>Grisa, C. y Sabourin, E. (2019). Agricultura Familiar: de los conceptos a las políticas públicas en América Latina y el Caribe. 2030 - Alimentación, agricultura y desarrollo rural en América Latina y el Caribe, No. 15. Santiago de Chile. FAO. 19 p.</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>2</sup>FAO/BID. (2007). Políticas para la agricultura familiar en América Latina y el Caribe – Resumen ejecutivo (Soto-Baquero, F.; Rodríguez F., M.; y Falconi, C., eds.). FAO, Santiago, Chile. Disponible en: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ AGRO_Noticias/docs/politicasafresu.pdf</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>3 </sup>FAO. (2012). Marco estratégico de mediano plazo de cooperación de la FAO en Agricultura Familiar en América Latina y el Caribe 2012 – 2015. Disponible en: http://www.rlc.fao.org/es/publicaciones/marco-estrategico-cooperacion-faoagricultura-familiar-alc/</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>4</sup>FAO. (2011). Estrategia Regional de la FAO para la gestión del riesgo de desastres en América Latina y el Caribe | FAO (2011 - 2013), Roma 2011. 46p.</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>5</sup>Marcos, E. (2013). El Concepto Una salud Como Integrador de la Interfase Humano-Animal-Ambiental, Frente a las Enfermedades Emergentes, Reemergentes y Transfronterizas. ISSN 2250-7663 – Epidemiología y salud 1(3):16-20, marzo 2013</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>6</sup>Oyhantçabal, W., Vitale, E., Lagarmilla, P. (2010). El Cambio Climático y su Relación con las Enfermedades Animales y la Producción Animal. Conf. OIE 2010, 169-177</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>7</sup>Horby, P.W. (2014). ”Drivers of Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases," de Confronting Emerging Zoonoses The One Health Para-digm, pp. 13-26.</p> <p style="border:none; text-align:justify"><sup>8</sup>Peyre, M. (2013). Asociaciones público -privadas: un elemento fundamental para la vigilancia zoosanitaria. Boletín OIE Panorama 2013-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/bull.2019.3.3044</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-food-systems" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-Food Systems</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-systems" hreflang="en">FOOD SYSTEMS</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title">Blog comments</h2> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-427" about="/comment/427" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1617141535"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/comment/427#comment-427" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Sistemas Alimentarios</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=427&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="x3ypu9j9xkl6xcKONw-_k1qVGUXyzWwVqFLXCkp_khQ"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Moisés Vargas Terán</div> </div> <strong>Tue, 03/30/2021 - 15:27 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2021-03-30T21:27:00+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>El artículo del Dr. Carrión, me ha parecido interesante lo felicitó y considero que en los países se debería incrementar su atención al Sistema Pecuario Familiar, dedicandole un tratamiento de acuerdo a sus necesidades zoonanitarias particulares por parte de los servicios veterinarios nacionales.</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=118&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="RrstF5tvtMvjZTVxFzfYk64w6GwEpqWCdJTBFYAcB4k"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 22 Mar 2021 23:04:37 +0000 jarias 118 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/estrategia-sanitaria-dirigida-hacia-agricultura-familiar-en-america-latina-caribe#comments Why Agriculture is Key to Caribbean’s Tourism Sector Post-Covid 19 Pandemic https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/why-agriculture-key-caribbeans-tourism-sector-post-covid-19-pandemic <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Why Agriculture is Key to Caribbean’s Tourism Sector Post-Covid 19 Pandemic</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/136" hreflang="zxx">Ena Harvey</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 02/26/2021 - 09:40</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="agritourism Caribbean" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5081d21a-fa0e-42c6-b540-c0e8fc73f189" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2021.02.17%20Illustration%20agritourism%20in%20Caribbean.jpg" /></p> <p>After a devastating year for Caribbean economies, which nevertheless saw islands contain the worst of the Covid-19 pandemic, the region is <strong>slowly reopening</strong> with a new proposition for <strong>visitors in 2021</strong>.</p> <p>The unexpected downturn has provided an <strong>opportunity </strong>to rethink and refresh the <strong>Caribbean’s tourism sector</strong> to reduce islands’ vulnerability and <strong>draw closer links</strong> with food and gastronomy, which has long shaped Caribbean history, culture and identity.</p> <p>Industry leaders have also been forced to respond to the <strong>changing needs of tourists</strong>, whose heightened awareness of health, safety and environmental concerns has <strong>increased demands</strong> for smaller, bespoke tours and experiences beyond traditional sun, sea and sand packages.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:#3070b6">“By fostering greater collaboration and overlap between the tourism, hospitality, agriculture and gastronomy sectors, Caribbean nations can unlock multiple benefits for both tourists and the tourism industry.”</span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>The <strong>future </strong>of the Caribbean vacation in the post-Covid pandemic, then, may lie in <strong>agritourism</strong>.</p> <p>By fostering greater collaboration and overlap between the tourism, hospitality, agriculture and gastronomy sectors, Caribbean nations can unlock multiple benefits for both tourists and the tourism industry.</p> <p>Firstly, aligning tourism with island agriculture <strong>can provide mutual resilience</strong> in the event of shocks and stressors.</p> <p>During the Covid-19 pandemic, for example, many people <u><a href="https://www.healthycaribbean.org/backyard-gardening-initiatives-in-our-region-every-seed-counts/" target="_blank">turned to agriculture</a></u> and went out in droves to buy seedlings, both as an economic alternative to tourism and to <u><a href="https://www.caribbeannationalweekly.com/caribbean-breaking-news-featured/now-is-the-chance-for-caribbean-nationals-to-eat-what-they-grow/" target="_blank">bolster their own food security</a></u>.</p> <p><strong>Links </strong>between <strong>restaurants </strong>and local <strong>farmers </strong>are now stronger than ever, while the renewed focus on <strong>indigenous foods</strong> has increased appreciation of the importance of agriculture for reducing poverty, improving health, boosting employment and encouraging <strong>responsible food production</strong> and consumption.</p> <p>Maintaining this <strong>link </strong>between <strong>agriculture </strong>and <strong>tourism </strong>will help <strong>diversify Caribbean economies</strong> and reduce the heavy reliance on tourism, which was decimated during the pandemic.</p> <p>Despite the challenges of 2020, several <strong>agritourism “champions”</strong> have emerged across the region at both public and private sector levels, who are using<strong> innovative approaches</strong> to ensure that trade continues between the agriculture and tourism sector.</p> <p>The private sector <strong>development program</strong>, the <u><a href="https://www.competecaribbean.org/" target="_blank">Compete Caribbean Partnership Facility</a></u>, has continued to support agritourism projects, including a project to <strong>implement precision farming</strong> and a climate-resilient <strong>greenhouse system</strong> in <strong>St. Lucia</strong>. In addition, the same team has developed a <u><a href="http://market.guru.lc/" target="_blank">marketing platform</a></u> for a major retailer to use in their <strong>procurement systems</strong> with local farmers.</p> <p>These systems can help generate <strong>new opportunities for farmers</strong> and producers once tourism fully reopens. For example, beekeeper <u><a href="http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/las-bee-making-a-sweet-difference-with-honey_179689?profile=1373" target="_blank">Lascell Smith</a></u>, a 2019 finalist in IICA Jamaica’s <strong>Youth in Agribusiness </strong>Awards, invested in a custom-built honey sachet machine to meet demand for <strong>single-serve honey packages</strong> for the hotel industry while allowing hotels to offer <strong>local honey</strong>.</p> <p>Meanwhile, <strong>carving out a greater role</strong> within tourism for Caribbean produce and food culture can also enrich the experience of visiting our islands.</p> <p><strong>Chefs </strong>have become influential <strong>advocates </strong>of <strong>local food culture </strong>and are helping boost the use of Caribbean-produced foods both domestically and internationally, increasing our exports while also providing visitors with a more authentic and sustainable cuisine.</p> <p>One valuable <strong>platform </strong>is the <u><a href="http://chefs4dev.org/index.html" target="_blank">Chefs For Development</a></u> initiative, which aims to promote <strong>stronger links</strong> between actors in the <strong>culinary </strong>and <strong>tourism sectors</strong>. Launched by the EU-funded Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (<strong>CTA</strong>), the project will continue from 2021 under the leadership of the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (<strong>IICA</strong>).</p> <p>Online portals and networks like <strong>Chefs4Dev </strong>have become increasingly important as more of the world lives and works <strong>remotely </strong>during pandemic-related restrictions and lockdowns.</p> <p>By sharing knowledge, techniques and recipes online, chefs and local food ambassadors can safely continue to contribute to <strong>virtual agritourism</strong> and promote <strong>sustainable food habits</strong>, even in the face of limited travel.</p> <p>As tourism <strong>gradually </strong>returns to the Caribbean from 2021 onwards, we hope it will be the dawn of a new, more thoughtful and <strong>sustainable </strong>form of travel, that values a <strong>safe </strong>and <strong>authentic exchange </strong>inspired by our cuisine, our customs and our heritage.</p> <p>A <strong>healthy, thriving agritourism sector</strong> would be a worthwhile destination for all involved.</p> <p><em>Note: This article was published originally in <u><a href="https://www.caribbeannationalweekly.com/editorial/op-ed/op-ed-why-agriculture-is-key-to-caribbeans-post-covid-tourism-sector/" target="_blank">https://www.caribbeannationalweekly.com/editorial/op-ed/op-ed-why-agriculture-is-key-to-caribbeans-post-covid-tourism-sector/</a></u></em><br /> <br />  </p> <p style="margin-bottom:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><img align="left" hspace="12" 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" style="width:147px; height:147px" /><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#222222">Ena Harvey </span></span></span></i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#222222">is the IICA Representative in the Barbados Delegation and the Hemispheric Specialist in Agrotourism</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Note</span></i></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">: The opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</span></strong></span></span></span></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors:<b> </b></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="color:blue" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Joaquín Arias</span></i></a></span></span><b><i> </i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="color:blue" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Viviana Palmieri.</span></i></a></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title">Blog comments</h2> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-426" about="/comment/426" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1617126027"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/comment/426#comment-426" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Saint Lucia Greenhouse</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=426&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="2JgUY1nghpI4UQ-kJhyVMDHVMu4etn9l1D551NI0vx8"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">8683792433</div> </div> <strong>Tue, 03/30/2021 - 11:36 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2021-03-30T17:36:46+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The greenhouse in St. Lucia is by no means &#039;climate resilient&#039;. One minor hurricane and it&#039;s gone.</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=116&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="1CH1mylmq2R8IbI01fpGV5xWb-TE9lLkFn_E1gRu6Fo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Fri, 26 Feb 2021 15:40:27 +0000 vpalmieri 116 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/why-agriculture-key-caribbeans-tourism-sector-post-covid-19-pandemic#comments Un cielo limpio: desafío para la agricultura y la aviación https://blog.iica.int/blog/un-cielo-limpio-desafio-para-agricultura-aviacion <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Un cielo limpio: desafío para la agricultura y la aviación </span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128" hreflang="zxx">Orlando Vega</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 02/06/2021 - 18:19</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="ES" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Se requiere la creación de condiciones habilitantes que faciliten la transición hacia una economía baja en carbono y resiliente al cambio climático, propiciando crecimiento sostenible y recuperación verde con inclusión social e igualdad de oportunidades, tanto para el sector de la agricultura como para el de la aviación civil.”</span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <img alt="bioequeroseno" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="3d38772e-f31d-444f-9eb3-1d4ddb5537a5" height="634" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/portada%20bioqueroseno.jpg" width="608" class="align-center" /> <p><br /> La aviación ha sido uno de los sectores más golpeados por la pandemia de Covid-19. Existe ahora la oportunidad de avanzar hacia la recuperación del sector de la <strong>aviación </strong>a través del<strong> escalamiento de los biocombustibles sostenibles</strong>, con la concurrencia del <strong>sector agrícola</strong>. </p> <p>Este fue el tema de un panel en el evento del Grupo de Acción en el Transporte Aéreo (ATAG) 2020, denominado <u><a href="https://web.cvent.com/event/d0f999af-d3c0-410f-ad79-3ffabba01661/summary" target="_blank">Recuperación Verde – Foro Global de Aviación Sostenible</a></u> que se llevó a cabo durante la última semana de septiembre de 2020. En este panel se desarrolló el tema de cómo poner en marcha una exitosa y verde recuperación del sector de la aviación, que requerirá un acelerado despliegue de las <strong>soluciones existentes de descarbonización</strong> y una adecuada <strong>inversión </strong>para impulsar las <strong>nuevas tecnologías</strong>.</p> <p>Para que esto suceda fueron revelados los hallazgos del <u><a href="https://aviationbenefits.org/media/167116/w2050_full.pdf" target="_blank">reporte ATAG Waypoint 2050</a></u>. En la aviación, los <em>waypoints </em>son puntos significativos en una trayectoria de vuelo que los pilotos utilizan para navegar hacia su destino de viaje. Al desarrollar un objetivo a largo plazo, la industria de la aviación ha tomado esta filosofía para reconocer que <strong>2050 </strong>no es un destino, sino un marcador en un c<strong>amino hacia cero emisiones </strong>de carbono del transporte aéreo.</p> <p>Una de las mayores oportunidades de cumplir e ir más allá de este objetivo de la industria de la aviación consiste en el <strong>escalamiento </strong>de los <strong>combustibles sostenibles</strong> de aviación y <strong>nuevas fuentes</strong> de energía para 2050. Conforme con el reporte de la ATAG, es probable que la aviación necesite de <strong>450 a 500 millones de toneladas</strong> de combustibles sostenibles de aviación (SAF) al año para 2050. El análisis muestra que esto es alcanzable, junto con rigurosos criterios de sostenibilidad que garanticen una adecuada gestión que <strong>no afecte el suministro de alimentos</strong> ni el <strong>uso de agua</strong>.</p> <p>En lugar de depender de una sola opción, se cuenta con un <strong>amplio rango</strong> de biomateriales disponibles, desde <strong>cultivos no alimentarios</strong> hasta fuentes de <strong>residuos </strong>y combustibles líquidos, cuyo balance de emisiones es bajo en carbono y la sostenibilidad ambiental es garantizada.</p> <p>Se requiere la creación de <strong>condiciones </strong>habilitantes que faciliten la <strong>transición </strong>hacia una <strong>economía baja en carbono y resiliente al cambio climático</strong>, propiciando crecimiento sostenible y <strong>recuperación verde con inclusión social</strong> e igualdad de oportunidades, tanto para el sector de la <strong>agricultura </strong>como para el de la <strong>aviación civil </strong>y sus actividades conexas de <strong>suministro</strong>, <strong>comercio</strong>, <strong>turismo</strong>, <strong>empleos </strong>y <strong>conectividad </strong>en la región de LAC.</p> <p>Complementariamente, constituye un peldaño para contribuir a <strong>robustecer las cadenas de valor</strong> para el suministro de <strong>materias primas</strong> en la producción de combustibles sostenibles de aviación, impulsar los <strong>negocios verdes</strong>, incluyendo <strong>senderos tecnológicos</strong> para el aprovechamiento de la <strong>bioeconomía</strong>, que propicien actividades de recuperación <strong>post pandemia</strong> del COVID19, entre otros temas.</p> <p><strong>Sendero de implementación y condiciones habilitantes</strong></p> <p>Los <strong>biocombustibles de aviación</strong> pueden producirse a través de las <strong>rutas tecnológicas </strong>de <strong>conversión termoquímica </strong>o conversión <strong>bioquímica </strong>de la <strong>biomasa</strong>. No existe actualmente una clara ventaja comercial o técnica entre estas rutas, aunque se cuenta con <strong>potencial de innovar</strong> para lograr mejoras en el rendimiento y reducir los costos de producción mediante una competitiva industria de <strong>biocombustibles avanzados</strong>.<sup>1, 2, 3</sup> </p> <p>Los biocombustibles avanzados incluirían aquellos producidos por tecnologías convencionales, pero con <strong>materias primas alternativas</strong> a las utilizadas actualmente, menos sensibles a la competencia con la producción de alimentos. Entre estas se encontrarían diversas <strong>especies arbustivas </strong>o <strong>arbóreas perenes</strong>, <strong>oleaginosas </strong>u otras, con potencial de desarrollarse en <strong>zonas áridas</strong> o semiáridas de <strong>tierras marginales</strong>, como la <strong>jatropha</strong>, la <strong>camelina </strong>y las <strong>microalgas</strong>.</p> <p>El <strong>proceso HEFA</strong><sup>4</sup>  (hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids), es actualmente el <strong>más conocido</strong> para la producción de biocombustibles sostenibles de aviación; es <strong>similar a la refinación de petróleo</strong> y se obtiene un resultado con características similares al combustible convencional para la aviación. Este proceso consiste en la reacción de los <strong>aceites vegetales</strong> en presencia de <strong>hidrógeno </strong>y <strong>catalizadores  </strong>para producir combustible de aviación, nafta, diésel y gasolina<sup>5, 6, 7</sup>( Fig. 1).</p> <p class="text-align-center">Figura 1. Ruta de proceso HEFA para la obtención de biocombustibles a partir de la biomasa que contiene aceite vegetal.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-center"> <img alt="figura 1" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5eb7bde1-ae84-439a-8778-0227fc0982c1" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Fig1.png" /> <figcaption><em>Fuente: Neuling, U., Kaltschmitt, M. (2018).</em></figcaption> </figure> <p><br /> El <strong>bioaceite</strong>, o la biomasa que contiene aceite vegetal, puede ser <strong>refinado </strong>en <strong>combustible renovable</strong> usando la tecnología de <strong>hidroprocesamiento </strong>convencional aplicada actualmente en refinerías de petróleo en el mundo. HEFA está autorizado para uso como combustible de aviación conforme a <u><a href="http://www.astm.org/Standards/D7566.htm" target="_blank">ASTM D7566-14, Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons</a></u>. Una <strong>normativa revisada </strong>fue aprobada el 01 de julio de 2011, permitiendo añadir al combustible convencional para aviación hasta un <strong>50%</strong> de<strong> componentes sintéticos bioderivados</strong>. </p> <p><strong>Eficiencia, competitividad y sostenibilidad</strong></p> <p>En términos de <strong>eficiencia energética</strong>, los <strong>procesos HEFA</strong> ofrecen las <strong>mejores </strong>características de <strong>desempeño</strong>: <strong>90%</strong> si se incluyen los productos obtenidos de <strong>diésel</strong>, <strong>keroseno </strong>y <strong>nafta </strong>y <strong>60%</strong> si únicamente incluye <strong>bioqueroseno</strong>, a partir de materias primas como el <strong>aceite de palma</strong> y de <strong>jatropha</strong>. Los <strong>costos </strong>de los procesos HEFA basados en aceite de palma son comparativamente <strong>bajos</strong>, de 890 €/t de bioqueroseno, y relativamente <strong>bajas emisiones</strong> de GEI, de 52.0 gCO2eq/MJKerosene<sup>9</sup>. Los <strong>precios </strong>de los <strong>combustibles </strong>de aviación <strong>alternativos </strong>siguen siendo <strong>superiores </strong>con respecto a los precios de los combustibles de aviación convencionales, pero el diferencial de precios muestra una clara <strong>tendencia descendente</strong>. Como referencia, el precio al contado del combustible convencional de tipo queroseno para reactores, puesto en la costa estadounidense del Golfo de México fue de 686,51 US$/t en el 2018 (equivalente a 581,25 €/t)<sup>10, 11, 12, 13</sup>.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="ES" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Entre más viable ambiental y económicamente sea la provisión de materia prima, es más prometedor el resultado de la producción de bioqueroseno y esto es más o menos independiente de la ruta de conversión implicada.”</span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>En general, entre más <strong>viable </strong>ambiental y económicamente sea la <strong>provisión </strong>de <strong>materia prima</strong>, es más <strong>prometedor </strong>el <strong>resultado </strong>de la producción de <strong>bioqueroseno </strong>y esto es más o menos independiente de la ruta de conversión implicada.</p> <p>Actualmente, solamente el <strong>proceso HEFA</strong> para la producción de bioqueroseno está <strong>comercialmente disponible</strong>, pero <strong>no </strong>es la <strong>única opción </strong>existente al evaluar la disponibilidad de materia prima para producir este biocombustible sostenible de aviación en escala industrial. Sin embargo, estas <strong>posibles rutas alternativas</strong> necesitan más esfuerzos de <strong>investigación y desarrollo</strong>.</p> <p>La Neste Oil, una compañía de refinería y mercadeo enfocada en combustibles de alta calidad cuyo principal propietario es el Estado de Finlandia (50,1%), muestra como <strong>potenciales materias primas biogénicas</strong> para la obtención de aceite puro vegetal (AVP) al<strong> residuo de grasa animal</strong> proveniente de la industria de <strong>procesamiento de alimentos</strong> y de <strong>pescado</strong>, <strong>soya</strong>, <strong>palma</strong>, <strong>camelina</strong>, <strong>jatropha</strong>, <strong>colza </strong>e inclusive <strong>aceite de cocina</strong> usado, entre otras fuentes<sup>14</sup>.</p> <p>Adicionalmente, se debe mencionar un trabajo<sup>15</sup> que explora el <strong>potencial </strong>de siete <strong>cultivos tropicales y subtropicales</strong> para convertirse en opciones relevantes de materia prima para la producción de bioqueroseno: <em>Acrocomia aculeata</em>; <em>Allanblackia</em> spp.; Babassu (<em>Orbignya </em>spp.); <em>Moringa oleífera</em>; Neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>); <em>Pongamia pinnata</em> y <em>Swida wilsoniana</em>. En todos los casos, <strong>se requiere</strong> un <strong>marco analítico</strong> para examinar los <strong>factores económicos</strong>, <strong>sociales </strong>y <strong>ambientales </strong>que juegan un papel determinante en los esfuerzos para llegar a una producción a <strong>gran escala</strong> y una viabilidad económica a partir de estos cultivos, como también al desarrollo de <strong>modelos de negocio sustentables</strong>.</p> <p>El gran <strong>desafío </strong>consiste en cómo implementar el uso de los <strong>biocombustibles </strong>en la<strong> industria aérea </strong>a <strong>corto plazo</strong> y a <strong>gran escala</strong>, en condiciones de <strong>sustentabilidad</strong>, <strong>competitividad </strong>y <strong>eficiencia</strong><sup>16, 17</sup>.</p> <p>Avanzar hacia la meta de la descarbonización de la industria de la aviación civil es posible con la concurrencia del sector agrícola, pero el <strong>escalamiento </strong>de los biocombustibles sostenibles de aviación <strong>requerirá </strong>la creación de <strong>condiciones habilitantes</strong> y el desarrollo de las <strong>rutas tecnológicas</strong> y de <strong>innovación</strong>.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="ES" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Avanzar hacia la meta de la descarbonización de la industria de la aviación civil es posible con la concurrencia del sector agrícola, pero el escalamiento de los biocombustibles sostenibles de aviación requerirá la creación de condiciones habilitantes y el desarrollo de las rutas tecnológicas y de innovación.”</span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br /> <i><span lang="ES" style="font-size:14.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><img alt="Orlando Vega" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="00052bfa-c269-4b78-bd25-89e9767df3b7" height="230" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/OVega%20400px%20x%20400px%202.jpg" width="230" class="align-left" />Orlando Vega</strong> es Licenciado en Ingeniería Agronómica con énfasis en Economía Agrícola de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) y candidato a Maestría en Seguridad Alimentaria por la Universidad Abierta y a Distancia de México (UnADM). Hasta el año pasado ejerció como Especialista en Bioenergías y Alianzas Estratégicas en el IICA, donde promovió y lideró diferentes iniciativas y alianzas con FAO, OLADE, BID, RSB (Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials), CAF (Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina) y ALTA (Asociación Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Transporte Aéreo), en temas relacionados con agregación de valor en la cadena de bioqueroseno, criterios de certificación en el uso de la biomasa, los biocombustibles y los biomateriales, el escalamiento de la producción de combustibles de aviación sostenible (SAF), entre otros.</span></span></i></p> <p><br /> <span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><em><b><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Nota</span></b></em><strong><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: Las opiniones expresadas en este blog son responsabilidad del autor y no reflejan necesariamente la opinión del IICA.</span></strong></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Referencias</strong></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><sup>1</sup>  IRENA. (2016). <u><a href="https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_Innovation_Outlook_Advanced_Biofuels_2016_summary.pdf" target="_blank">Innovation Outlook: Advanced Biofuels</a></u>. Abu Dhabi. International Renewable Energy Agency. <br /> <sup>2</sup> Machado, C. (2010). <u><a href="http://biblioteca.olade.org/opac-tmpl/Documentos/old0155.pdf" target="_blank">Situación de los Biocombustibles de 2da y 3era Generación en América Latina y Caribe</a></u>. IICA – OLADE.<br /> <sup>3</sup> IICA – FAO – OLADE – BID. (2017). <u><a href="https://www.iica.int/es/publications/cadena-de-producci%C3%B3n-sustentable-de-bioqueroseno-vinculada-los-territorios-rurales-en" target="_blank">Cadena de producción sustentable de bioqueroseno vinculada a los territorios rurales en la América Latina y el Caribe</a></u>. Brasilia: IICA.<br /> <sup>4</sup> Otros nombres usados: hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) o hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO).<br /> <sup>5</sup> Un catalizador es una substancia que acelera la reacción química, pero no es consumida en la reacción.<br /> <sup>6</sup> ICAO – UNDP – GEF. (2017). Op. Cit.<br /> <sup>7</sup> Neuling, U. &amp; Kaltschmitt, M. (2018). <u><a href="https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0378382017307828-gr7.jpg" target="_blank">Techno-economic and environmental analysis of aviation biofuels</a></u>. Fuel Processing Technology, 171:54–69. <u><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.09.022" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.09.022</a></u><br /> <sup>8</sup> Gavala, H. (2018). <u><a href="https://www.nordicenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/1.3-Introduction-to-SAF-DTU.pdf" target="_blank">Sustainable Aviation Fuels – SAF. An introduction</a></u>. Applied Thermodynamics - Center for Energy Resources Engineering. DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. <br /> <sup>9</sup> Neuling, U. &amp; Kaltschmitt, M. (2018). Op. Cit.<br /> <sup>10</sup> OACI. (2017). <u><a href="https://www.icao.int/Meetings/CAAF2/Documents/CAAF.2.WP.008.1.es.pdf" target="_blank">Precios estimados de los combustibles de aviación alternativos</a></u>. En: Conferencia sobre la Aviación y los Combustibles Alternativos. Ciudad de México, México, 11 a 13 de octubre de 2017. CAAF/2-WP/08 18/08/17<br /> <sup>11</sup> U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). (2019). <u><a href="https://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&amp;s=eer_epjk_pf4_rgc_dpg&amp;f=a" target="_blank">U.S. Gulf Coast Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Spot Price FOB</a></u>.<br /> <sup>12</sup> Eurosystem European Central Bank. (2018). <u><a href="https://www.ecb.europa.eu/stats/policy_and_exchange_rates/euro_reference_exchange_rates/html/eurofxref-graph-usd.en.html" target="_blank">Euro foreign exchange reference rates: US dollar (USD)</a></u>.<br /> <sup>13 </sup>Density @15°C = 0,780 t/m3.<br /> <sup>14</sup> Lehmus, P. (2014). <u><a href="http://www.etipbioenergy.eu/images/petri-lehmus.pdf" target="_blank">Large scale chemical conversion of oils and residues in Rotterdam, Neste Oil</a></u>. In: European Biofuels Technology Platform – 6th Stakeholder Plenary meeting, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. <br /> <sup>15</sup> Zelt, T. (2018). “New” Oil Plants and Their Potential as Feedstock for Biokerosene Production. In: Kaltschmitt M., Neuling U. (eds) Biokerosene. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg <u><a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53065-8_13" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53065-8_13</a></u> <br /> <sup>16</sup> Working Together On Fuel - Biofuels Are an Industry Priority. IATA Press Release. No.: 56 Date: 15 November 2011. Disponible en:<u><a href=" http://www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/Pages/2011-11-15-01.aspx" target="_blank"> http://www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/Pages/2011-11-15-01.aspx</a></u> <br /> <sup>17</sup> IATA (International Air Transport Association) 2011. Report on Alternative fuels. Effective December 2011. Edition 6th. Montreal — Geneva. <u><a href="http://www.iata.org/ps/publications/Documents/IATA%202011%20Report%20on%20Alternative%20Fuels.pdf" target="_blank">http://www.iata.org/ps/publications/Documents/IATA%202011%20Report%20on%20Alternative%20Fuels.pdf</a></u> </span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span style="font-weight:normal">Si tiene preguntas o sugerencias de mejora del BlogIICA favor contactar a los editores: </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><i>Joaquín Arias</i></a><strong><i><span style="font-weight:normal"> y </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><i>Viviana Palmieri.</i></a></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p><br />  </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/bioeconomy" hreflang="en">BIOECONOMY</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=111&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="MSJ1eTSDrgl3yEUxsq2okbRAATknP4VO2BjsgYDLyBg"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Sun, 07 Feb 2021 00:09:09 +0000 vpalmieri 111 at https://blog.iica.int Back to the 1960s? Education May Be Latin America’s Most Lasting Scar from COVID-19 https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/back-1960s-education-may-be-latin-americas-most-lasting-scar-covid-19 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Back to the 1960s? Education May Be Latin America’s Most Lasting Scar from COVID-19</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/121" hreflang="zxx">Nora Lustig</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/122" hreflang="zxx">Guido Neidhöfer</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/123" hreflang="zxx">Mariano Tommasi</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 12/03/2020 - 11:30</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><table class="TableGrid2" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“The growing educational gap will cause devastating damage to inequality – and economic growth – for years to come unless we take the warning signs seriously.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="Studying a copy of a textbook in Pernambuco, Brazil" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b2c414c1-92e0-4c9a-9cef-d74ef6744eea" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2020.12.03%20GettyImages-1227825684-e1606959456461.jpg" /> <figcaption><em>Studying a copy of a textbook in Pernambuco, Brazil.<br /> LEO MALAFAIA/AFP via Getty Images</em></figcaption> </figure> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic is placing <strong>Latin America </strong>at serious risk of <strong>unraveling the progress</strong> the region has made in the last decades when it comes to <strong>education</strong>. According to UNICEF, 95% of children are out of school in a region where <strong>social mobility coming from education is already low</strong>, and where equality of opportunity is rare. But the current generation of school children may – especially in low income, less educated households – be facing a future with the meager levels of education achievement last seen in the 1960s. Going backwards in education is not just bad for the children directly affected. Latin America’s future could witness losses in economic growth and increased political polarization as a result.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Going backwards in education is not just bad for the children directly affected. Latin America’s future could witness losses in economic growth and increased political polarization as a result.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>While schools shut their doors for children of all socioeconomic backgrounds, their <strong>ability to continue learning</strong> depends on their <strong>parents’ income</strong> and <strong>educational </strong>level. As in other regions of the world, <strong>high-educated parents</strong> have <strong>better access</strong> to <strong>internet </strong>and laptops, tablets, and so on, as well as the <strong>knowledge </strong>and non-cognitive skills to support their children’s <strong>homeschooling</strong>. They also have the economic resources to hire tutors and purchase the best online options for course materials. Children in<strong> low-parental education households</strong>, in contrast, may find it difficult if not <strong>impossible </strong>to continue their <strong>education </strong>at home due to <strong>lack </strong>of adequate <strong>equipment</strong>, <strong>connectivity </strong>and – above all – one-on-one <strong>coaching</strong>.  Just as an example of such inequalities, the <strong>internet coverage</strong> for households whose head has less than secondary school in Bolivia, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua is around <strong>30</strong>% while it is above 90% in families, within the same country, headed by adults with more than secondary education.</p> <p>Children in <strong>disadvantaged </strong>households will end up with <strong>lower </strong>levels of <strong>learning </strong>and many might drop out of school altogether. This will result in l<strong>ower social mobility </strong>and more <strong>inequality </strong>of opportunity in the future.  <strong>Governments </strong>across the region have implemented a series of <strong>measures </strong>— whose scale varies significantly across countries—such as TV, radio, printouts and online learning schemes, as well as income-support programs.</p> <p>But these <strong>mitigation policies</strong> simply <strong>aren’t enough</strong>. Our projections, which are based on simulation exercises we explain in our forthcoming paper on the intergenerational effects of COVID-19 in Latin America, estimate that the <strong>likelihood </strong>of today’s students to <strong>complete secondary </strong>education in Latin America may soon <strong>drop </strong>from a regional average of <strong>61</strong>% to <strong>46</strong>%. (The working paper will soon be published by the <u><a href="https://commitmentoequity.org/publications-hub" target="_blank">Commitment to Equity Institute</a></u>.)</p> <p>This <strong>average</strong>, however, <strong>hides </strong>striking <strong>differences </strong>across countries and socioeconomic groups. While the impact of individuals from highly <strong>educated families</strong> is <strong>hardly affected</strong>, the probability of completing secondary school for individuals with <strong>low-educated parents</strong> is considerably lower in the <strong>post-pandemic</strong>, <strong>declining </strong>by almost <strong>20 </strong>percentage points, from <strong>52</strong>% to <strong>32</strong>%. This low level of educational attainment for children of low-educated families was reported in Latin America for cohorts born in the 1960s. The <strong>sharpest decline</strong> is estimated for <strong>Brazil</strong>: 32 percentage points; the least dramatic, for Uruguay: 9 percentage points. In <strong>Guatemala </strong>and <strong>Honduras</strong>, the probability of secondary school completion of individuals from lower educated families might even <strong>fall below 10%</strong>.  The <strong>gap </strong>in the likelihood of completing high-school between children of low-educated families and children of high-educated families — already high before the pandemic — could thus <strong>rise significantly</strong>.</p> <div class="infogram-embed" data-id="e0be9a81-45e5-4da1-94ce-f27b4d334137" data-title="AQ Likelihood of Completing Secondary Education in Latin America" data-type="interactive"> </div> <script> <!--//--><![CDATA[// ><!-- <!--//--><![CDATA[// ><!-- <!--//--><![CDATA[// ><!-- !function(e,i,n,s){var t="InfogramEmbeds",d=e.getElementsByTagName("script")[0];if(window[t]&&window[t].initialized)window[t].process&&window[t].process();else if(!e.getElementById(n)){var o=e.createElement("script");o.async=1,o.id=n,o.src="https://e.infogram.com/js/dist/embed-loader-min.js",d.parentNode.insertBefore(o,d)}}(document,0,"infogram-async"); //--><!]]]]]]><![CDATA[><![CDATA[> //--><!]]]]><![CDATA[> //--><!]]> </script> <p>Can something be done to prevent this <strong>unequalizing force</strong> from happening? To soften the negative impact of school closures on children, governments are experimenting with ways of reopening them that are prudent from an epidemiological point of view. <strong>Reopening schools</strong>, however, is <strong>not enough </strong>now and it will not be enough in the post-pandemic period either. There will be a need to <strong>make up for the losses</strong> by <strong>increasing </strong>both the <strong>amount </strong>and <strong>quality </strong>of <strong>learning </strong>time once the pandemic is tamed. School systems will need to contemplate extended schedules, summer and after-school programs, and more personalized instruction. Efforts should also be geared to <strong>developing online</strong> and <strong>offline resources </strong>available for <strong>free </strong>and <strong>expanding connectivity </strong>to schools and other places so the resources can be downloaded at no cost. The focus should be on the<strong> most vulnerable</strong> children. That is, children in low-educated households as they are the ones who are likely to have lost more instructional time. </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“One key recommendation is for governments not to cut education spending when they face the inevitable need to reign in fiscal deficits. In fact, if anything, fiscal resources devoted to education may need to rise.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">The <strong>remedial actions </strong>and rescue operations will require resources, especially <strong>financial resources</strong>. One key recommendation is for governments not to cut education spending when they face the inevitable need to reign in fiscal deficits (deficits that were not only acceptable but encouraged during the pandemic). In fact, if anything, fiscal resources devoted to education may need to rise.  The <strong>challenge </strong>is so daunting that help will be needed from <strong>nonstate actors</strong> as well. Private philanthropy, the for-profit sector, and community-based organizations together with governments should launch a <strong>crusade </strong>to <strong>save </strong>the next generation of <strong>vulnerable children </strong>from falling behind.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">-----</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><em>This text was originally published in <u><a href="https://www.americasquarterly.org/article/back-to-the-1960s-education-may-be-latin-americas-most-lasting-scar-from-covid-19/" target="_blank">https://www.americasquarterly.org/article/back-to-the-1960s-education-may-be-latin-americas-most-lasting-scar-from-covid-19/</a></u> and is reproduced here with permission from the authors.</em></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Nora Lustig</span></span></span></i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> (@noralustig) is Samuel Z. Stone Professor of Latin American Economics and founding director of the Commitment to Equity Institute at Tulane University; nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, the Center for Global Development and the Inter-American Dialogue; and founding member and president emerita of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association (LACEA).</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Guido Neidhöfer</span></span></span></i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> (@GNeidhofer) is advanced researcher at ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research in Mannheim, Germany.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Mariano Tommasi</span></span></span></i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> is professor of economics and director of the Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Humano at Universidad de San Andrés in Argentina and fellow of the Econometric Society.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note</span></span></i></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <table class="TableGrid3" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors:<b> </b></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="color:blue" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Joaquín Arias</span></i></a></span></span><b><i> </i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="color:blue" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Viviana Palmieri.</span></i></a></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/digital-agriculture" hreflang="en">Digital Agriculture</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=106&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="O5tZS3ZRlVzNjUkgIiOCcMBEyaqnzO-HnKOUfKpeVJk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Thu, 03 Dec 2020 17:30:13 +0000 vpalmieri 106 at https://blog.iica.int Haciendo un balance a seis meses de COVID: ¿Cómo puede el comercio ayudar a reconstruir mejor? https://blog.iica.int/blog/haciendo-un-balance-seis-meses-covid-como-puede-comercio-ayudar-reconstruir-mejor <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Taking Stock after Six Months of COVID: How Can Trade Help Rebuild Better?</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/120" hreflang="zxx">Adriana García Vargas</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 11/04/2020 - 17:47</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>It has now been over <strong>six months</strong> since the WHO declared COVID-19 a global <strong>pandemic</strong>. Besides the enormous <strong>cost </strong>in terms of <strong>human lives</strong>, the global economy is being pushed to its worst <strong>recession </strong>in decades. The time passed allows us to better evaluate the <strong>economic and trade impact</strong> in different regions and sectors, and to reflect about how to help <strong>rebuild in a resilient and sustainable way</strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width: 100%; border-collapse: collapse; border-width: initial; border-style: none; border-color: initial;" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“COVID-19 has stopped—and even reversed—much of the progress made towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>The most recent <u><a href="https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/09/30/world-economic-outlook-october-2020" target="_blank">IMF</a></u> forecasts indicate that the <strong>global economy will contract</strong> by 4.4% in 2020. Among the developing regions, <strong>Latin America and the Caribbean</strong> will be <strong>hardest hit</strong>, with an output <strong>decline </strong>of<strong> 8.1%</strong>. While developed countries will also experience a dramatic recession (on average -5.8%), the <strong>largest economic and social damage</strong> is expected in the <strong>developing world</strong>, with between <u><a href="https://unctad.org/news/covid-19-unctad-warns-lost-decade-if-countries-adopt-austerity" target="_blank">90 and 120 million people</a></u> pushed into <strong>extreme poverty</strong>. </p> <p><strong>COVID-19</strong> has stopped—and even <strong>reversed</strong>—much of the <strong>progress </strong>made towards <strong>achieving </strong>the <strong>Sustainable Development Goals</strong>. In fact, <u><a href="http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/covid-19-human-development-course-decline-year-first-time-1990" target="_blank">UNDP</a></u> estimates that this year global human development could fall for the first time since 1990, when the concept was first introduced and measured.</p> <p>While <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr858_e.htm" target="_blank"><u>world trade also experienced a sharp decrease</u></a> in the first half of 2020, it seems that the worst-case scenario predicted earlier this year will not materialize. <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/agri_27aug20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u><strong>Agricultural trade</strong></u></a>, in particular, <strong>has proved</strong> to be surprisingly <strong>resilient</strong>: some sectors did suffer as a consequence of the <strong>bottlenecks faced </strong>(such as logistical issues), but in general world <strong>agricultural exports</strong> actually increased in the first part of the year. Moreover, while a number of countries first responded by <strong>banning </strong>or restricting their <strong>exports </strong>of <strong>foodstuffs</strong>, most of these <strong>measures </strong>were <strong>lifted after </strong>a short time. The FAO also reports that global production of staple foods is expected to grow, and that stocks remain at high levels. </p> <p>It seems that the <strong>world managed to avert</strong> the much-feared threat of a <strong>global food crisis</strong> as it happened in 2007-2008. However, while COVID-19 has not had such a strong impact as expected on the <strong>availability </strong>of food, the resulting economic <strong>recession </strong>does <strong>threaten </strong>to <strong>constrain access</strong> to food for many. In fact, the director of the World Food Program warned in late July about the risk of <a href="https://es.wfp.org/noticias/hambre-aumenta-a-medida-casos-covid-19-se-disparan-America-Latina-Caribe" target="_blank"><u>increasing hunger and food insecurity in Latin America and the Caribbean</u></a>, and <strong>IICA </strong>also found that several countries in the region have a <strong>high level of <a href="https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/vulnerabilidad-alimentaria-ante-covid-19" target="_blank">food vulnerability</a></strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid3" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“While COVID-19 has not had such a strong impact as expected on the availability of food, the resulting economic recession does threaten to constrain access to food for many.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>As <strong>governments </strong>step up their <strong>efforts </strong>to help their populations and <strong>rebuild </strong>their economies, the calls for these efforts to promote a <strong>sustainable recovery</strong> also increase. And trade can play an important role to help achieve this goal. The experience of these six months has shown that <strong>keeping markets open is crucial</strong> for countries to have access to food and important medical supplies. Trade policy can also be an important tool to promote <strong>sustainable development</strong>. For that, it also needs supportive <strong>multilateral </strong>rules. </p> <p>There are <strong>two actions</strong> that the <strong>global trade community</strong> could do in the next months to support a <strong>sustainable recovery</strong>: </p> <p>1. Concluding as soon as possible the <strong>negotiations to discipline fisheries subsidies</strong>: reducing these harmful subsidies would achieve <a href="https://indicators.report/targets/14-6/" target="_blank"><u>SDG target 14.6</u></a>, and contribute to ensure the sustainability of the world’s <strong>marine resources</strong>. The fact that WTO members have now started <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/fish_21sep20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u>text-based negotiations</u></a> in this area is very welcome.</p> <p>2. Agreeing at the next WTO Ministerial Conference on <strong>concrete steps to reform agricultural trade</strong>: after a pause of several months, on 25 September WTO members also <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/agng_25sep20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u>resumed the agriculture negotiations</u></a>. An outcome in this area could contribute to <a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/hunger/" target="_blank"><u>SDG 2</u></a> and its specific targets, including <strong>ensuring sustainable food production systems</strong>. </p> <table class="TableGrid4" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Trade policy can also be an important tool to promote sustainable development. For that, it also needs supportive multilateral rules.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Many governments have responded to the COVID-19 crisis with important amounts of <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/agri_18jun20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u><strong>support to the agricultural sector</strong></u></a>. While it is of vital importance to <strong>protect </strong>the livelihoods of <strong>farmers </strong>and ensure that they continue to produce food, it is also important to <strong>avoid </strong>an increase in<strong> policies that distort</strong> global <strong>markets </strong>or <strong>harm the environment</strong>. According to the <a href="https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=134_134299-gywwih2rh3&amp;title=COVID-19-and-Global-Food-Systems" target="_blank">OECD</a>, a large share of the support policies that countries currently apply are of the most trade-distorting type, and also exacerbate the environmental impact of agriculture. An agreement to <strong>cut trade-distorting support</strong> would make resources available for more efficient <strong>investments </strong>that can help make the global <strong>food system </strong>more resilient, sustainable and productive. </p> <table class="TableGrid4" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Experience has also showed us that export bans and restrictions can threaten global food security. Clearer and stronger WTO rules on export restrictions could help prevent this from happening.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Experience has also showed us that <a href="https://blog.iica.int/blog/restricciones-las-exportaciones-alimentos-ante-covid-19" target="_blank"><u>export bans and restrictions</u></a> can threaten global food security. While the <strong>measures applied</strong> as a response to COVID-19 <strong>did not reach the proportions</strong> of 2007-2008 or <strong>provoke a global food crisis</strong>, this doesn’t mean that it could not happen in another future crisis scenario. <strong>Clearer and stronger</strong> WTO <strong>rules </strong>on export restrictions could help prevent this from happening.</p> <p><br /> A previous version of this article was published at <u><a href="https://login.mailingwork.de/-viewonline2/1593/8221/1977/SZcQvNla/jOMcXBYaco/1" target="_blank">https://login.mailingwork.de/-viewonline2/1593/8221/1977/SZcQvNla/jOMcXBYaco/1</a></u></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Adriana García" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1bdbe2a2-06d9-45e2-8252-944ca70eea8b" height="154" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Adriana%20Garc%C3%ADa%20Vargas.png" width="154" class="align-left" />Adriana García Vargas</span></span></i></b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> is an economist, consultant and independent researcher specializing in international trade. She currently works in Frankfurt, Germany from where she supports the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) and is a tutor of the Financial Risk Management course at the Frankfurt School for Finance and Administration.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Note</span></i></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA</span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors:</span></i></strong><strong><i> </i></strong><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><i>Joaquín Arias</i></a><strong><i> </i></strong><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">and </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><i>Viviana Palmieri.</i></a></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/trade-covid19" hreflang="en">TRADE-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=103&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="gH_MCf1w9mXMBGjYwGP9UAErg3TM9We2h3d30KZyBYU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Wed, 04 Nov 2020 18:10:23 +0000 vpalmieri 103 at https://blog.iica.int Digital exclusion: an obstacle that hinders rural women’s work https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/digital-exclusion-obstacle-hinders-rural-womens-work <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Digital exclusion: an obstacle that hinders rural women’s work</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/114" hreflang="zxx">Valentina Rotondi </a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/115" hreflang="zxx">Francesco Billari</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/116" hreflang="zxx">Luca Pesando</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/117" hreflang="zxx">Ridhi Kashyap</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 10/20/2020 - 09:47</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>Research study by the University of Oxford/IICA/IDB/IFAD</em></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; margin-top:29px; width:336.8pt; height:160.8pt; z-index:251659264; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-top:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0in 8.0pt 0in"> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><em><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">“In 17 of the 23 Latin American and Caribbean countries analyzed, the number of women who report owning a mobile phone is lower compared to men. The greater the gender gap with respect to mobile phone ownership, the lower women’s participation in the workforce. Rural women are the least connected group”</span></span></span></span></em></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="mujeres rurales" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cac13d3a-7386-4026-968f-e5dab909c67f" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/meujres%20rurales.jpg" /> <figcaption><strong><em>From Book: Warriors - Rural Women Around the World</em></strong></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>In most Latin American and Caribbean countries, rural women are the group that is least connected to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), reveals our study sponsored by by the University of Oxford with support from the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).</p> <p>In the study “<em><a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-10/study%20digital%20rural%20gender%20divide%20%20BVE20108184.pdf" target="_blank">Digital rural gender divide in Latin America and the Caribbean</a></em>”, based on data from the Gallup World Poll, information on the countries and digital trace data from Facebook, in 17 out of the 23 countries analyzed, we found that women are less likely to report to own a mobile phone compared to their male counterparts. Low-educated women living in rural areas are also the least “connected” group.</p> <p>Fewer women than men report owning a mobile phone. However, this varies between rural and urban areas. Characteristics such as gender and household location of residence interact with each other producing multiple layers of disadvantage for women living in rural areas.</p> <p>The topic of this study is particularly relevant amidst the Covid-19 pandemic, which has accelerated changes in production methods and marketing networks for all types of products, such as food and other goods supplied by rural areas.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"> <a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-10/study%20digital%20rural%20gender%20divide%20%20BVE20108184.pdf" target="_blank" title="Link to pdf file"><img alt="gender digital divide" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="178c20e1-a238-4dab-859d-3a8a8a6b4a74" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/imagen%20del%20libro_0.JPG" /></a> <figcaption><em><strong>Contributing to reversing the inequality faced by rural women and facilitating access to technology for those involved in agricultural production are two of the main challenges that IICA, IDB and IFAD have committed to addressing. IICA’s efforts are channeled through its five hemispheric work programs for the period 2018-2022, which include the topics of Gender and Youth and Innovation and Technology as cross-cutting issues. IFAD is intensifying its program to develop and implement telematic applications that enable small farmers and the staff of the projects that it funds to follow up on business plans and to sell products in Latin America and the Caribbean, without the intervention of an intermediary.</strong> </em></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-top:29px; width:336.8pt; height:195.7pt; z-index:251659264; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <p><br clear="ALL" /> <span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><a name="_Hlk39219192" id="_Hlk39219192"></a></span></span></span></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:#3070b6">“The study reveals that reduced access to mobile phones and the Internet is yet another issue faced by rural women, who must overcome greater obstacles to secure funding, receive training, access formal employment opportunities, and own land.”<br /> This pattern of inequality hinders the full development of rural women, who play a key role in driving agricultural productivity and guaranteeing the stability of their families”</span></span></i></span></span></p> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="color:#3070b6">Manuel Otero, Director General of IICA</span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> <p class="text-align-center"><strong><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Roboto&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#333333">INEQUALITY IN MOBILE PHONE OWNERSHIP</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="Inequality" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f2d5fb3f-e504-4b48-b9f6-0d071e717224" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/inequality.png" /> <figcaption><strong><em>Fewer women than men report owning a mobile phone. However, this varies between rural and urban areas. Characteristics such as gender and household location of residence interact with each other producing multiple layers of disadvantage for women living in rural areas. “<a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-10/study%20digital%20rural%20gender%20divide%20%20BVE20108184.pdf">Digital rural gender divide in Latin America and the Caribbean</a>”, University of Oxford, IICA, IDB and IFAD.</em></strong></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>According to annual data from the Gallup Poll, mobile-phone ownership has increased from about 45% in 2006 to about 80% in 2017. The digital gender gap in mobile-phone ownership has narrowed over the past decade, yet with an apparent worsening over the past five years.<br /> Although there are gender gaps in most countries, the study did identify some exceptions. While <strong>Argentina</strong> and <strong>Brazil </strong>have almost achieved gender equality, <strong>Guatemala</strong> and <strong>Peru</strong> are examples of countries with a wide gender gap. On the other hand, in countries like <strong>Chile</strong> and <strong>Uruguay</strong>, the female-to-male ratio tends to favor women.</p> <p>The rapid diffusion of mobile phones has shown some promises in narrowing the digital divide and generating a positive impact on the economy and social development. For many people around the world, mobile phones constitute cheap, easy and effective computers, allowing not only to communicate and access information but also to obtain vital services linked to health, education, and the economy, or sell their products.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; margin-left:114px; margin-top:134px; width:336.65pt; height:236pt; z-index:251659264; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-top:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0in 8.0pt 0in"> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">The multilateral funding institution “must spearhead efforts to expand opportunities for employment through digitalization in the region.</span></span></span></span></i></p> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">The agency should “be at the forefront of efforts to expand connectivity in rural areas and to increase its use in education, small businesses, banking, and financing.”</span></span></span></span></i></p> <p align="right" style="border:none; text-align:right; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">First speech as the new president of the IADB, Mauricio Claver-Carone</span></span></span></span></i></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Despite these advancements, women still often lag behind in digital access. According to the latest report released by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in most countries of the world women are still trailing men in benefiting from the transformational power of digital technologies: over half the total global female population (52%) is still not using the Internet, compared to 42% of all men”, according to data from the Gallup World Poll (2017) related to information provided by mobile phones.</p> <p>The study explores the correlation between gender gaps in mobile-phone adoption and three measures of women’s empowerment utilized by the International Labour Organization (ILO), namely the ratio of female to male vulnerable employment rate, the ratio of female to male labor-force participation rate, and the ratio of female to male youth unemployment (measured in 2019).</p> <p><strong>The study concluded </strong>that, overall, a more narrowed digital gender gap with respect to mobile phone ownership is associated with better labor-market prospects for women and lower gender gaps in vulnerable employment and youth unemployment.</p> <p>With respect to the <strong>use of social media platforms</strong>, the study utilized digital trace data on the gender composition of Facebook users (retrieved in February 2020) to measure the gender divide in social media use. Facebook was selected because it is the most popular social networking site in the region.   </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; margin-left:114px; margin-top:39px; width:273.6pt; height:424pt; z-index:251659264; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-top:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0in 8.0pt 0in"> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">“Mobile phones can play an important role in reducing poverty and hunger, as well as in bridging the gender divide in rural areas.  Rural women continue to be marginalized. Digital connectivity, through mobile phones, is critical to empowering these women, by granting them access to markets, information and financial services, particularly in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Lack of equitable access to mobile phones threatens to intensify the inequalities already suffered by rural women. If we do not resolve this problem, this gap could reverse the gains that we have worked so hard to achieve in terms of gender equality in rural areas, which would be to the detriment of rural development as a whole”</span></span></span></span></i></p> <p align="right" style="border:none; text-align:right; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">Gilbert F. Houngbo, The head of IFAD</span></span></span></span></i></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>The results show that, relative to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, male and female <strong>Facebook penetration rates</strong> in Latin America are quite balanced, although there are some differences.</p> <p>While in <strong>Brazil</strong>, <strong>Argentina</strong>, <strong>Venezuela</strong>, <strong>Colombia</strong>, <strong>Suriname</strong>, <strong>Uruguay</strong> and <strong>Paraguay</strong>, women are more likely to be Facebook users than men, in others, including <strong>Mexico</strong>, <strong>Nicaragua</strong> and <strong>Guatemala</strong>, men are slightly more active on Facebook.</p> <p><strong>The research study  focuses</strong> on the first-level digital gender divide, which is the divide related to accessing ICTs, and highlights the need to conduct further research on the second-level divide, which relates to the skills required to better capitalize on these technologies.</p> <p><strong>The main findings of the study are: </strong></p> <ul> <li>In Latin America and the Caribbean, there is a gender divide related to accessing information and communication technologies, which had been gradually decreasing up until a few years ago.</li> <li>Mobile-phone ownership in the countries analyzed has increased from about 45% in 2006 to about 80% in 2017.</li> <li>In 17 of the 23 countries analyzed, women are less likely to report to own a mobile phone compared to men.</li> <li>Women living in rural areas are the least “connected” group.</li> <li>In countries where the digital gender gap is lower, gender gaps in vulnerable employment, youth unemployment and labor-force participation are lower as well.</li> <li>Some countries, such as <strong>Argentina</strong> and <strong>Brazil</strong>, have almost achieved gender equality with respect to mobile phone ownership. In <strong>Guatemala</strong> and <strong>Peru</strong>, women are still at a disadvantage. In <strong>Chile</strong> and <strong>Uruguay</strong>, the female-to-male ratio tends to favor women.</li> </ul> <p class="text-align-center"><strong>COUNTRIES ANALYZED – MOBILE PHONE OWNERSHIP BY GENDER</strong></p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="contries analized - mobile phone" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5f01ef4b-e719-4f8d-b700-1d103e96431b" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/countries%20mobile.png" /> <figcaption><em><strong>“Digital rural gender divide in Latin America and the Caribbean”, University of Oxford, IICA, IDB and IFAD.</strong></em></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p><strong>Authors of the study</strong></p> <p><strong>Valentina Rotondi </strong>(A social scientist with an interdisciplinary focus, Rotondi specializes in the interactions between population, development and technological change. A postdoctoral researcher at the University of Oxford, she holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the Catholic University of Milan).</p> <p><strong>Francesco Billari </strong>(A sociologist, Billari is a professor of Demography and Dean of that faculty at Bocconi University in Milan. A member of the Academy of Social Sciences of the United Kingdom, his field of research is population change and family dynamics).</p> <p><strong>Luca Pesando</strong> (Pesando holds a Ph.D. in Demography and Sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. A professor at McGill University in Montreal, he is also a researcher in the field of economic and social demography. His areas of interest include family poverty, inequality and stratification).</p> <p><strong>Ridhi Kashyap </strong>(Kashyap holds a Ph.D. in Sociology and is a Professor of Social Demography at the University of Oxford. Her areas of research include gender, mortality and health; the diversification of family formation patterns; and ethnicity and migration).<br />  </p> <p><u><a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-10/study%20digital%20rural%20gender%20divide%20%20BVE20108184.pdf" target="_blank" title="Download the study">Download study</a></u></p> <p style="text-align:justify"><em><strong>Note: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</strong></em></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span style="font-weight:normal">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors:</span></i></strong><strong><i> </i></strong><i><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">Joaquín Arias</a></i><strong><i> </i></strong><i>and </i><i><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline">Viviana Palmieri.</a></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=100&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="yaZZTGgiuDBGaLILhyJUObR6S-TLKMBHJGRrnY5GvvI"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Tue, 20 Oct 2020 15:47:28 +0000 jarias 100 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/digital-exclusion-obstacle-hinders-rural-womens-work#comments Agriculture, climate change and COVID-19 https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/agriculture-climate-change-and-covid-19 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Agriculture, climate change and COVID-19</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/59" hreflang="zxx">Diana Francis</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 10/05/2020 - 11:12</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:5px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:5px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Doing more with less has been the experience in agriculture in the Caribbean for decades. This may well continue to be the case in this new reality of global economic pressures arising from a double whammy of slow-moving climate change impacts and lingering effects of the rapidly evolving covid19.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Within the space of two days, <strong>three news headlines</strong> – one international and two local – essentially tell a story of<strong> two human development challenges</strong> on a collision course – climate change and COVID-19, both with unprecedented socio-economic implications. These articles are: “<u><a href="https://thehill.com/opinion/international/516607-another-famine-coming-china-struggles-to-meet-basic-food-demands" target="_blank">Another famine coming? China struggles to meet basic food demands</a></u>” (thehill.com, September 17),” “<u><a href="https://newsday.co.tt/2020/09/17/ft-farfan-outlet-rebranded-to-agri-world/" target="_blank">FT Farfan outlet rebranded to Agri World</a></u>” (Newsday.co.tt, September 17), “<u><a href="https://newsday.co.tt/2020/09/18/high-charges-rumours-of-sale-cause-anxiety-among-trincity-mall-tenants/" target="_blank">High charges, rumours of sale cause anxiety among Trincity Mall residents</a></u>” (Newsday.co.tt, September 18).</p> <p><strong>What binds these stories? Agriculture and food. How? </strong>Take the first article. In writing for The Hill, Jianli Yang concluded that a “shortage of food” could bring China, a rising economic and military superpower, to its knees.</p> <p>In Newsday’s FT Farfan article, Ken Chee Hing reported that the company has rebranded its Arima outlet into Agri World to focus exclusively on the agriculture, lawn and garden sector in response to the boost in local interest in home gardening.</p> <p>Reporter Andrew Gioannetti, in the other Newsday article, describes businesses in Trincity Mall being forced to close permanently, due in part to the covid19 lockdown of non-essential businesses.</p> <p>In the FT Farfan article, the Arima store rebranding is framed by Sandy Samnarine of the ALG Division of FT Farfan Ltd as “a movement away from survival gardening to a profitable farming business while respecting our resources, our people and our environment.”</p> <p><strong>The need for the transformation of agriculture and food systems</strong></p> <p>This statement captures past and current challenges in the Caribbean region since<strong> the 1996 Regional Transformation Programme (RTP)</strong> on Agriculture, and the several other regional policies, strategies and plans that followed.</p> <p>All these, in an effort to modernise the sector by promoting the widespread adoption of good and improved agriculture practices based on a blend of traditional knowledge, science and innovation and, in particular, changing farming systems to enhance rather than deplete and degrade the very environmental resources that it depends on – healthy soils and clean water.</p> <p>This transformation is needed now more than ever to build resilience to climate change and provide food for nutrition. That is key to good health in the midst of a public health pandemic.<br /> In 2020, where it appears that the slower-moving manifestations of climate change and the rapid effects of covid19 are converging, Samnarine’s statement also finds relevance in explaining the current impacts of the pandemic on the business sector. Gioannetti reports that the Trincity Mall faced a pre-existing condition which weakened its resilience to the covid19 economic fallout – liquidation of CL Financial and Clico assets.</p> <p><strong>A takeaway from this situation </strong>could be that most of these businesses were marketing what are considered non-essential goods and services. In economic theory, these are typically described as “wants,” or aspirational and luxury goods.</p> <p>As is common practice in Trinidad and Tobago, in times of economic crisis <strong>people tend to spend their limited funds mostly on what is essential</strong> for survival, what economic theory describes as “needs” – food, medicines, housing, education. As covid19 business-thinning and belt-tightening take shape, spending on “wants” tends to be sharply and significantly reduced, which, unfortunately, form a significant share of mall store offers.</p> <p>Perhaps the story there is to invest and/or diversify into goods and services “needs” that can better survive economic crises.</p> <p><strong>Returning to the land in times of crisi</strong>s is a definite historical behaviour, as is being seen in a resurgence of interest at all levels of the society to grow one’s own food, even at the level of the Prime Minister. This trend is shared across the Caribbean and the rest of the world.<br /> In his opinion piece for The Hill, Yang indicated that “Chinese President Xi Jinping recently launched the ‘Clean Plate’ campaign to ensure that food supplies do not deplete quickly and bring about a repetition of the 1959 Great Famine in which millions of people starved to death.”</p> <p>Yang’s piece warns of a pending food crisis in China, due to massive floods, unprecedented since 1939, in its rice and other agriculture-producing areas, with experts warning that the worst may be yet to come. 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; margin-top:29px; width:336.8pt; height:66.8pt; z-index:251659264; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-top:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0in 8.0pt 0in"> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">“People are also making a clear choice to let food be their medicine…”</span></span></span></span></i></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>The importance of investing in agriculture</strong></p> <p>These three news articles point to the importance of investing in the agriculture and food value chain, since, as it is often said, people must eat. People are also making a clear choice to let food be their medicine, due in part to the more aggressive promotion of good nutrition in enhancing resilience to and recovery from covid19.</p> <p><strong>The Inter-American Institute for Co-operation on Agriculture (IICA)</strong> applauds all those who have and continue to invest in agriculture and food production in  Trinidad and Tobago and the rest of the Caribbean, particularly the many micro and small agripreneurs who link directly with and add value to local farm produce.</p> <p>For decades, Caricom countries have been encouraged to increase the level of both public and private sector investment in agriculture. In <strong>Trinidad and Tobago</strong>, there is much speculation as to whether the great resurgence in national interest in agriculture and locally produced agri-food products will be reflected in the <strong>2020/2021 budget allocation </strong>to the agriculture sector. Whatever the outcomes, <strong>two things are clear</strong>.</p> <p><strong>Firstly</strong>, that agricultural development cannot be solely dependent on the budget allocated to agriculture. As economic theory and practice confirm, a number of major influences on agriculture’s development exist outside of the sector and the issue, therefore, should be on whether these influences are well recognised and accounted for in the overall national budget in a manner that complements the specific allocation to agriculture.</p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; margin-top:29px; width:336.8pt; height:66.8pt; z-index:251661312; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-top:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0in 8.0pt 0in"> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">“it is not how much budget is allocated, but how well the allocated budget is utilized”</span></span></span></span></i></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Secondly</strong>, as stated recently by the Minister of Agriculture, Land and Fisheries, it is not how much budget is allocated, but how well the allocated budget is utilised. In some instances, as is seen within IICA’s management of its own resources for technical co-operation, <strong>a lot can be done with limited resources,</strong> once it is well targeted and efficiently managed, including collaborating and co-ordinating with strategic partners.</p> <p>According to a recent observation of the<strong> IICA director general, Dr Manuel Otero</strong>, increasingly agriculture development support institutions are being called upon to do more with less. Doing more with less has been the experience in agriculture in the Caribbean for decades. This may well continue to be the case in this new reality of global economic pressures arising from a double whammy of slow-moving climate change impacts and lingering effects of the rapidly evolving covid19.</p> <p><em><strong><em><strong><img alt="Diane Francis" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="68db1849-9d54-4631-ae6b-291f09ad845e" height="157" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/photo%20nueva%20Diana%20Francis-resized.png" width="156" class="align-left" /></strong></em></strong></em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong>Diana Francis</strong> is the representative of the Inter-American Institute for Co-operation on Agriculture Delegation in Trinidad and Tobago</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>This article appeared originally in <u><a href="https://newsday.co.tt/2020/09/26/agriculture-climate-change-and-covid19/" target="_blank">Newsday </a></u></p> <p><em><strong>Note: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</strong></em></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid #0070c0; width:589px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:2px solid #0070c0; border-right:2px solid #0070c0; border-left:2px solid #0070c0" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><span style="color:#002060">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors: </span></strong><span lang="es-419" style="color:#002060" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419"><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><span lang="EN-US" style="color:#002060" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Joaquín Arias</span></a></span><strong><span style="color:#002060"> and </span></strong><span lang="es-419" style="color:#002060" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419"><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><span lang="EN-US" style="color:#002060" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Viviana Palmieri.</span></a></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=96&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="LywBbSee0LRuOrbZ_MhiKdbAdZT1OHk1ZnQ2liQ4Cg8"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 05 Oct 2020 17:12:30 +0000 jarias 96 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/agriculture-climate-change-and-covid-19#comments Crece 13 por ciento la balanza comercial agrícola de América Latina y el Caribe durante la pandemia del Covid-19 https://blog.iica.int/blog/crece-13-por-ciento-balanza-comercial-agricola-america-latina-caribe-durante-pandemia-del <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Crece 13 por ciento la balanza comercial agrícola de América Latina y el Caribe durante la pandemia del Covid-19</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/10" hreflang="zxx">Joaquín Arias</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 09/26/2020 - 17:56</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Crece 13 por ciento la balanza comercial agrícola de América Latina y el Caribe durante la pandemia del Covid-19</strong></p> <p><strong><img alt="balanza comercial agricola" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="eef0bc64-28bc-40f9-a6cd-9c6223b1ac97" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2020.09.23.Gr%C3%A1fica%20de%20la%20semana.JPG" /></strong></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>América Latina y el Caribe con un desempeño sobresaliente durante la pandemia como proveedor de alimentos y productos agrícolas de la región y el mundo</strong></p> <p>América Latina y el Caribe (15 países con datos disponibles a julio de 2020) aumentó 13 por ciento su balanza comercial agrícola por un valor de 9.72 mil millones de dólares durante los meses de marzo – julio 2020 con respecto al mismo periodo de 2019. Las exportaciones agrícolas durante el periodo aumentaron 6.7 por ciento a 106 mil millones de dólares mientras las importaciones cayeron 4.8 por ciento a 29 mil millones de dólares (ver total de 15 países en la gráfica). Sin embargo, el desempeño comercial de los 15 países de América Latina y el Caribe fue dispar y se pueden distinguir tres grupos principales.  </p> <p><strong>Seis países con el mejor desempeño comercial</strong></p> <p>En el primer grupo destacan seis países (en verde en la gráfica): Brasil, México, Paraguay, Colombia, Costa Rica y Belice al aumentar significativamente su balanza comercial agrícola durante la pandemia y porque tienen en común aumentos en las exportaciones proporcionalmente mayores a los aumentos o caídas en las importaciones.  </p> <p>Brasil aumentó 20.1% sus exportaciones agrícolas en marzo – julio 2020 con respecto al mismo periodo de 2019 a 42.8 mil millones de dólares, Paraguay 14 por ciento a 2.6 mil millones de dólares, Costa Rica 11.1 por ciento a 2.1 mil millones de dólares, Belice 3.9 por ciento a 90 millones de dólares, Colombia 2.3 por ciento a 3.1 mil millones de dólares y México 2.1 por ciento a 17.7 mil millones de dólares.  Por otra parte, todos ellos, con excepción de Costa Rica (aumentaron 0.6 %), bajaron sus importaciones en un rango que va de 14.6 por ciento (Paraguay) a 4.5 por ciento (Belice). </p> <p><strong>Cinco países con un desempeño comercial agrícola moderado</strong></p> <p>El segundo grupo agrupa a cuatro países que mejoraron moderadamente su balanza comercial agrícola (en amarillo en la gráfica): Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Bolivia y Panamá.</p> <p>Argentina aumentó durante la pandemia 3 por ciento su superávit de exportaciones agrícolas en 2020 a 14.6 mil millones de dólares, después de que las exportaciones aumentaran durante marzo – julio 2020 con respecto al mismo periodo de 2019 tan solo 0.14 por ciento a 16.8 mil millones de dólares mientras que las importaciones subieron 7.7 por ciento a 1.8 mil millones de dólares.  </p> <p>Por su parte, Ecuador aumentó las exportaciones 1.9 por ciento a cerca de 5 mil millones de dólares y las importaciones cayeron 0.6 por ciento a cerca de mil millones de dólares con lo que el superávit comercial aumentó un uno por ciento a 40 millones de dólares.</p> <p>Guatemala aumentó su balanza comercial 4.6 por ciento a 1.2 mil millones de dólares como resultado que sus exportaciones agrícolas crecieron 3.3 por ciento a 2.5 mil millones de dólares mientras que las importaciones agrícolas crecieron 1.6 por ciento a 1.3 mil millones de dólares.</p> <p>Bolivia aumentó 4.3 por ciento su balanza comercial agrícola a 315 millones de dólares solo que esta vez se debió a caídas proporcionalmente menores de las exportaciones que de las importaciones agrícolas.  Bolivia exportó 600 millones de dólares durante marzo – julio con eso más que duplicó su volumen de importaciones que alcanzaron los 282 millones de dólares.  </p> <p>Finalmente, Panamá disminuyó 12 por ciento su déficit comercial y se debió a caídas tanto de las exportaciones como de las importaciones. Panamá pasó de un déficit en marzo – julio de 2019 de 591 millones de dólares a 529 millones durante los mismos meses de este año. </p> <p><strong>Cuatro países con resultados negativos en sus balanzas comerciales agrícolas </strong></p> <p>El tercer grupo de países está compuesto por Chile, Perú, Uruguay, y El Salvador.  Estos cuatro países han empeorado su balanza comercial agrícola durante la pandemia.</p> <p>El deterioro más significativo lo ha sufrido Perú con una caída de 61.8 por ciento en su balanza comercial. Perú pasó de exportar 2.6 dólares por cada dólar de importaciones agrícolas en 2019 a 1.6 dólares en marzo – julio de 2020, que significó una pérdida neta de 754 millones de dólares. Sus exportaciones agrícolas cayeron 23 por ciento a 3.2 mil millones de dólares mientras que las importaciones subieron un 1 por ciento a cerca de 2 mil millones de dólares.</p> <p>Seguidamente, el déficit comercial agrícola de El Salvador aumentó 45.6 por ciento o 240 millones de dólares como resultado de una baja en las exportaciones de 12 por ciento a 476 millones de dólares y una suba de 11 por ciento en las importaciones a mil millones de dólares.</p> <p>Le sigue Uruguay con una baja en su superávit comercial de 12.4 por ciento o 182 millones de dólares luego de que las exportaciones agrícolas cayeron 11.3 por ciento a 1.9 mil millones de dólares y de que las importaciones agrícolas aumentaran 0.5 por ciento a 443 millones de dólares.</p> <p>Finalmente, Chile reduce su superávit comercial agrícola durante la pandemia 3.5 por ciento o el equivalente a 152 millones de dólares que son el resultado de que las exportaciones agrícolas cayeran 4.2 por ciento a 7.2 mil millones de dólares y que las importaciones cayeran 5.2 por ciento a 2.8 mil millones de dólares. </p> <p><strong>Pueden encontrar más en:</strong></p> <p>En otra entrega veremos cómo se traducen estos resultados en términos de productos exportados e importados y socios comerciales según país de la región. Un adelanto de productos de exportación por país lo pueden encontrar en el siguiente <u><a href="https://blog.iica.int/blog/cuales-paises-america-latina-caribe-marcan-pauta-del-comercio-agricola-mundial-durante" target="_blank">artículo</a></u>. </p> <p>Detalles del comportamiento mensual de las exportaciones desde 2018 a la fecha lo encontrarán en el artículo <u><a href="https://blog.iica.int/blog/monitoreando-comercio-agroalimentario-durante-covid-19" target="_blank">Monitoreando el comercio agrícola durante la pandemia</a></u>. </p> <p><img alt="Joaquin Arias" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b4953e9d-f32e-4f41-a61d-7787ca9f02a9" height="112" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/foto%20perfil%20joaqui%20arias_0.PNG" width="144" class="align-left" /><br /> <strong>Joaquin Arias</strong> es PhD en economía agrícola, técnico especialista internacional del Centro de Análisis Estratégico (CAESPA) del IICA, con sede en Panamá.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/trade-covid19" hreflang="en">TRADE-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/impact-covid19" hreflang="en">IMPACT-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/information-statistics" hreflang="en">INFORMATION-STATISTICS</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=95&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="8nghQlQZzNjaDq0flxrtB2N3GgSeuQKoNvrHmQoRVWM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Wed, 23 Sep 2020 22:32:52 +0000 jarias 95 at https://blog.iica.int Measuring the True Cost of Food https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/measuring-true-cost-food <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Measuring the True Cost of Food</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/109" hreflang="zxx">David Laborde</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/110" hreflang="zxx">Marie Parent</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/102" hreflang="zxx">Valeria Piñeiro</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 09/21/2020 - 14:08</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="foto super mercado ifpri" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="712c256e-714d-4e7b-8896-f06a43bf1612" height="388" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/super%20mercado.JPG" width="583" /> <figcaption>Photo credit: <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/gilbert_mercier/49850109796/">Gilbert Mercie</a>r</figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p><strong>What do we mean by the “true cost” of food?</strong></p> <p>When people think of food prices, they typically think about the price paid by consumers at the time of purchase (the “private cost”). However, this price may not include all the costs to society. These “social costs” also encompass environmental and public health impacts stemming from practices and features of global and local food systems—including air and water pollution, overdrawn aquifers, antibiotic resistance, and diet-related diseases like diabetes. While consumers don’t pay these costs upfront, the costs are borne by society later in other ways: for example, reduced harvests as a result of land erosion or soil degradation.<br /> Policy can shape which social costs emerge and their significance by influencing four food system drivers: how much we produce, what we produce, how we produce, and where we produce. Some of these factors cross borders, thus affecting international public goods. When they do, they become international social costs that require international policy to be appropriately addressed.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:5px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:5px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“‘Social costs’ also encompass environmental and public health impacts stemming from practices and features of global and local food systems—including air and water pollution, overdrawn aquifers, antibiotic resistance, and diet-related diseases like diabetes.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong> Has the true cost of food been measured?</strong></p> <p>In our <u><a href="https://www.g20-insights.org/policy_briefs/true-cost-of-food/" target="_blank">G20 Policy Brief</a></u>, we compile a variety of existing estimates of some of the social costs of food in the United States and compare them to other food-system-wide estimates. Unfortunately, no internationally harmonized approach to measure the true cost of food currently exists. Without such an approach, it is difficult for countries to even discuss these issues, let alone consider reform.</p> <p><strong>What should be done?</strong></p> <p>The G20 is well situated to act as a leader in catalyzing international governance to address the challenges surrounding the true cost of food. We offer three proposals for G20 action: (1) mandating the development of a globally harmonized measurement of the true cost of food, (2) coordinating reform of harmful policies, and (3) setting the agenda for the introduction of beneficial policies. Proposal 1 would provide the knowledge-sharing needed to promote a common language and vision among G20 countries, while Proposals 2 and 3 comprehensively address critical policy reforms.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="G20 action" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="fcd7d6fb-2a14-4855-a112-82226c212fed" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Figura%20G20.png" /> <figcaption><em>Three Proposals for G20 Action</em></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>To begin the process, the G20 must give a mandate to the international scientific community, including organizations such as the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), IFPRI, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Meetings of Agricultural Chief Scientists of G20 States (MACS-G20), to develop a harmonized method to measure the true cost of food. This method could be a central contribution to the <u><a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/food-systems-summit-2021" target="_blank">United Nations Food System Summit in 2021 </a></u>if it is consistent, evidence-based, and robust across countries and food products. The international scientific community will be able to use this measurement method to assess the relative magnitude of various social costs of food and to identify key policy types that contribute to food systems’ “hidden” costs. The G20 can then use this assessment to coordinate policy reforms aimed at removing harmful policy incentives that increase the social cost of food, and to propose beneficial policies that offset or reduce specific food system costs in socially acceptable ways. G20 member countries could repurpose money from the harmful policies removed in accordance with Proposal 2 for the beneficial policies in Proposal 3.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:5px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:5px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“By establishing a clear understanding and measurement of the true cost of food, including all market failures, countries will be better able to design and repurpose their current agricultural policies to achieve a triple win: improved productivity, resilience, and environmental stability.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>By establishing a clear understanding and measurement of the true cost of food, including all market failures, countries will be better able to design and repurpose their current agricultural policies to achieve a triple win: improved productivity, resilience, and environmental stability.</p> <p><em><u><a href="https://t20saudiarabia.org.sa/en/About/Pages/whats.aspx" target="_blank">Think20 (T20) </a></u>is a G20 engagement group that connects and collaborates with think tanks around the world to provide ideas and recommendations to G20 leaders. This blog originally appeared at <u><a href="http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/true-cost-food" target="_blank">Food Security Portal </a></u>and pulls from one of the briefs published by the T20 task force on Sustainable Energy, Food, and Water Systems, one of ten T20 task forces for this year’s Saudi Arabia G20 Presidency..</em></p> <p><em><strong><img alt="David Laborde" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="2261f9dd-57d2-4ede-b04e-33c98e0577f3" height="99" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/David%20Laborde.png" width="99" class="align-left" />David Laborde </strong>is a Senior Research Fellow in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division and the Theme Leader on Macroeconomics and Trade for the International Food Policy Research Institute. He has a doctoral degree in International Economy from the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour</em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong><img alt="Marie Parent" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c9c3b2bf-816e-460a-84ba-e72243ba9eda" height="96" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Marie%20Parent.png" width="96" class="align-left" />Marie Parent </strong>is a Research Analyst at the International Food Policy Research Institute. She provides support to cross-country research on SDGs 2.1, 2.3, and 2.4. Her projects involve multiple partner organizations and methodologies including CGE modelling, cluster analysis, and systematic reviews. Marie holds a Master of Public Policy from the University of California, Berkeley.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong><img alt="Valeria Piñeiro" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6064f27a-c757-48a7-a52d-f1baa544e172" height="95" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Valeria%20pi%C3%B1eiro.png" width="95" class="align-left" />Valeria Piñeiro</strong> is a Senior Research Coordinator at the International Food Policy Research Institute. She received her Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics from the University of Maryland and she is also a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University Advanced Academic Programs. She has consulted for many organizations, including the World Bank.</em></p> <p><em><strong>Note: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</strong></em></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid #002060; width:587px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:2px solid #002060; border-right:2px solid #002060; border-left:2px solid #002060" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto">Do you have questions or suggestions to improve the BlogIICA? Please write to the editors: </span></span><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto">joaquin.arias@iica.int</span></span></a><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto"> and </span></span><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto">viviana.palmieri@iica.int</span></span></a> </span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/food-systems" hreflang="en">FOOD SYSTEMS</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/en/tags/perspectives-food-systems" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-Food Systems</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=94&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="-ieKzk9cBHrq1csUWnyY5CeLejFZ03NFhpy9ix_8Syo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 21 Sep 2020 20:08:17 +0000 jarias 94 at https://blog.iica.int