FOOD SECURITY-COVID19 https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en en PERSPECTIVAS DE LA AGRICULTURA Y DEL DESARROLLO RURAL EN LAS AMÉRICAS: Una mirada hacia América Latina y el Caribe https://blog.iica.int/index.php/blog/perspectivas-agricultura-del-desarrollo-rural-en-las-americas-una-mirada-hacia-america-latina <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">THE OUTLOOK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AMERICAS: A Perspective on Latin America and the Caribbean</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/10" hreflang="zxx">Joaquín Arias</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/151" hreflang="zxx">Adrian Rodríguez</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/152" hreflang="zxx">Luiz Beduschi</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 09/02/2021 - 15:32</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="Portada" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="fa13d711-2dee-40b0-b8d5-43311ba9e698" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Portada.PNG" /> <figcaption>Available in <a href="https://www.agrirural.org/en">https://www.agrirural.org/en</a></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>The ninth edition of the report <strong>THE OUTLOOK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AMERICAS: A Perspective on Latin America and the Caribbean</strong> has been launched an it is the result of a joint effort by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA). </p> <p>The editorial coordination of this publication was in charge of Joaquín Arias (IICA) and was co-led by Adrián Rodríguez from ECLAC and Luiz Beduschi from FAO.</p> <p>We must recognize the 30 technicians from the three institutions who participated actively making contributions to the development of the various topics discussed in this report. The special chapter that this year dealt with <strong>digitization in agriculture, promoting and accelerating digital transformation in the post-pandemic period</strong>, was led by Federico Bert from IICA.</p> <p>The report, through an interdisciplinary, comprehensive and intensive approach in the use of statistics and evidence, highlights the central role of agri-food systems and the actions necessary for the rural and agricultural transformation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the post-pandemic recovery scenario of COVID-19.</p> <p>The following are the most outstanding messages from the directors of ECLAC, FAO and IICA at the launch of the report during the 2021 Conference of Ministers of Agriculture of the Americas and the Twenty-First Regular Meeting of the Inter-American Board of Agriculture (IABA).<br /> <br /> <strong>GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CONTEXT</strong></p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="Cap 2" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c912d329-99de-4958-bebc-6effde3483fb" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20cap%202%20context.PNG" /> <figcaption>Available in <a href="https://www.agrirural.org/en#capitulo-02">https://www.agrirural.org/en#capitulo-02</a></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>We had the privilege of transmitting the prerecorded presentation of Ms. Alicia Bárcena, ECLAC executive secretary, who spoke to us about the global and regional context, chapter two of the report, marked by the pandemic caused by COVID-19, which has affected Latin America and the Caribbean more than any other region in the world, both in health and economic terms.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a name="_Hlk39219192" id="_Hlk39219192"></a></span></span></span></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Chapter 2, on the global and regional context, highlights the priorities for agri-food systems (AFSs) in the coming years should include investing in green infrastructure to help mitigate climate change, promoting universal access to social security, introducing initiatives to boost productive capacity and to adapt to the digitalized economy, and solving the over-indebtedness of families and productive farms.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">Here are the most important messages from Ms. Bárcena's speech:</p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a name="_Hlk39219192" id="_Hlk39219192"></a></span></span></span></p> <div class="video-embed-field-provider-vimeo video-embed-field-responsive-video"><iframe width="854" height="480" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/595525314?autoplay=1"></iframe> </div> <p> </p> <ol> </ol> <ul> <li>The unprecedented impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in our region have made analysis of our agri-food systems more relevant than ever. </li> <li>By mid-august, the region accumulated nearly 1.4 million deaths attributable to COVID-19, 32% of the global total even as regional population is just 8.4% of the global total.</li> </ul> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">The pandemic has shown food systems to be central to maintaining global, regional, and national food flows from our fields to our populations, especially when confined by quarantine and mobility restrictions.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <ul> <li>It has also revealed underlying vulnerabilities.  In 2020 Latin America and the Caribbean suffered from a 6.8% drop in GDP -the worst contraction in economic activity in 120 years. ECLAC estimates regional growth at 5.8% in 2021 and a deceleration to 2.9% growth in 2022.  There is no reason to expect the low-growth dynamics that dominated the pre-2020 years to change thereafter.  Indeed, the social imbalances and the region’s structural problems have been exacerbated greatly by the crisis and will persist throughout the recuperation. Essentially, we must talk about a “recovery paradox”.</li> <li>The pandemic-derived crisis has increased inequality and poverty with an extreme impact on women, school-aged children, and the elderly. Fiscal measures adopted by countries have been important, but insufficient in terms of amount and duration. In the last year, the rates of extreme poverty and poverty reached 12.5% and 33.7%, respectively. The emergency transfers to the most vulnerable sectors limited increases in poverty.  These emergency transfers benefitted 326 million people, or 49.4% of the population. Still, income inequality in the region increased.</li> <li>The regional unemployment rate stood at 10.7% at the end of 2020 with an increase of 2.6 percent points with respect to the value registered in 2019.  The strongest impact has been on informal employment. Furthermore, unjust social organization of care and the lack of support during the pandemic represent a ten-year setback in women’s labor insertion.  Occupation in the agricultural sector, where informality reaches over 80%, has been strongly affected, and especially the employment of migrants. </li> <li>The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment has caused a reduction in household income. An increase in hunger and other forms of food insecurity and malnutrition is a consequence. Moderate or severe food insecurity reached 40.4% of the population in 2020.</li> </ul> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">In this context, the agricultural sector has shown great resilience in the face of the decline in general economic activity. </span></span></span></i></span></span></span><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Preliminary data indicate that the sector grew and decreased less than overall GDP in 2020 in most regional countries. The sector has responded well thus far to health, logistical and financial challenges.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <ul> <li>For consumers, the news is less encouraging. Regionally, food price indices have grown at higher rates than the overall price index. In June 2021, the regional weighted average food price index grew 7.8% year-on-year while the general price index grew 5.7% over the same period. </li> <li>The increase in poverty and food prices accentuate a problem that has been worsening in the region, which we call “the double burden of malnutrition”. That is, the simultaneous occurrence of undernourishment along with obesity. </li> </ul> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">ECLA estimates that the economic cost of the “double burden” can rise to values above 10% of GDP in some countries</span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="color:#3070b6">.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <ul> <li> Face with this scenario, we have established the need to connect the emergency with recovery and a decade of action to face the planet’s main challenges. In other words, building a new future: a transformative recovery with equality and sustainability. </li> <li>This crisis creates a sense of urgency that we must take advantage of to create more robust, inclusive, sustainable, and competitive agri-food systems.  To do so: <ul> <li>We need to enhance our role as a region that provides food for the world, without affecting our biodiversity and fragile ecosystems. </li> <li>We need to move towards more agroecological production systems and practices, the application of nature-based solutions, and the development of the bioeconomy.</li> <li>We must also make better use of our rich endowments in agrobiodiversity, cultural diversity, and ancestral knowledge</li> <li>We need to promote healthier lifestyles. </li> </ul> </li> <li>And we must create synergies and complementarities in various areas: <ul> <li>Between ancestral knowledge and modern scientific knowledge.</li> <li>Between digital technologies and the life sciences.</li> <li>Between production for export and for local markets. </li> <li>Between global trade and intraregional food trade.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Given its essential nature, food production, together with the health sector should be at the forefront of financing and investment priorities for the post-pandemic recovery and transformation phase</span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="color:#3070b6">.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION</strong></p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="Cap 3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="57544beb-39c6-4d3b-a212-8c8c368bcbd8" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Cap%203%20rural%20transfe.PNG" /> <figcaption>Available in <a href="https://www.agrirural.org/en#capitulo-03">https://www.agrirural.org/en#capitulo-03</a></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>Next, we had the honor of listening to the pre-recorded presentation of Mr. Julio Berdegué, FAO Regional Director, who presented the third chapter of the joint report, focused on agricultural transformation in the face of the challenges and opportunities of the post-pandemic scenario.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Chapter 3,on rural and agricultural transformation, remarks that the post-COVID-19 pandemic transition is an opportunity to promote a more sustainable, inclusive and resilient rural and agricultural transformation. This requires innovative actions in various fields and new relationships between public, private and civil society actors</span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="color:#3070b6">.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> <div class="video-embed-field-provider-vimeo video-embed-field-responsive-video"><iframe width="854" height="480" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/595537855?autoplay=1"></iframe> </div> <p> </p> <p>Here are the most prominent messages from Mr. Berdegué's speech:</p> <ul> <li>Latin America and the Caribbean is a prodigious land because of its food production capacity. We are lucky to have 17 million farmers and 2 million fishermen, being the vast majority of them small-scale family producers. They have managed to turn our lavish nature into food for the world; not only for the inhabitants of the region, but for the world.</li> <li><strong>So why is it necessary to think about the transformation of these agri-food systems?</strong> Due to reasons from the past and the future. Half of the rural population is living in poverty. 60 million inhabitants in the region are suffering from hunger. A third of our soils are degraded, and half of our fisheries are overexploited. Although it is not true that all deforestation is a consequence of agriculture, it is true that an important part is. </li> <li><strong>Regarding the future</strong>, I listen with joy when some farmers tell me proudly that they are the third, the fourth or the fifth generation in the field. However, unlike their parents and grandparents, today's farmers must produce on a planet with climate change. And their children and grandchildren, who we want to continue to be farmers, will face this condition more severely if we don't take action today. Let’s add in the rapid changes brought about by technology, by advanced biology integrated into data science. What is modern today will be replaced tomorrow by new alternatives, by new ways of producing, processing, selling and buying, and consuming food. Let's think of a young person today, 15 years old. Imagine that boy or girl, 20 years from now, when he or she and their entire generation constitute the majority of the consumers to whom the new farmers will direct the food of this land..</li> <li><strong>What is that consumer going to demand?</strong> What is he or she going to ask not only of the product itself, but about the way it was produced? What will that market be like with those consumers who are currently young teenagers? Does anyone think that agri-food systems, in 15 or 20 years, are going to be the same as the ones we have today? That is why the transformation must begin now. It is true that, among the multiple agri-food systems that exist in each rural space in this region, not all the forms or customs from all de dimensions have to change. It is true that, in many cases, the best response to climate change or the obesity epidemic caused by poor diet, or hunger, is to preserve rather than transform.</li> </ul> <p>But change is the sign of the times.</p> <ul> <li>The transformation won’t be a "big bang", where everything changes from one day to the next, nor will it be a single, centrally planned, unified process. Nobody is looking for, or wanting, or proposing that. The transformation will be the sum of countless partial and decentralized transitions, each of them with an autonomous origin. These transitions will have their national and local hallmarks, because all the countries and all the numerous forms of agriculture that co-exist in this region are special. Each one is unique, as well as the ways they change. Some changes will be very deep, others not so much, but over time, in 10, 20, or 50 years, the agri-food systems of our grandchildren will be markedly different from those of today.</li> </ul> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">Agriculture did not fail in the pandemic; every day, food continued to reach the markets. But the pandemic has made visible some weak points in the global and regional agri-food system, and we should not wait for the next crisis to remember them. It is necessary to correct and reinforce them now</span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="color:#3070b6">.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <ul> <li style="margin-bottom: 11px;">Compared to other regions of the planet, Latin America and the Caribbean has great advantages in this new world of agri-food systems. There are threats, certainly, but also vast opportunities, which are within the reach of the farmers and agro-industrialists for whom, you, ministers work for every day.</li> </ul> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">This is and will continue to be a process where the winners will be those with the greatest capacity for innovation, anticipating the facts, discovering and amplifying new solutions and new ways of producing, processing, trading, buying and selling, and consuming food</span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="color:#3070b6">.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><strong> DIGITALIZATION OF AGRICULTURE</strong></p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="cap 4" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d806e691-800c-4510-b4db-cbb77c028e89" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Cap%204%20AD.PNG" /> <figcaption>Available in <a href="https://www.agrirural.org/en#capitulo-04">https://www.agrirural.org/en#capitulo-04</a></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>Last but not least, we had a presentation by Mr. Manuel Otero, IICA Director General, who focused his reflections on the special chapter of the Joint Report that this year addressed the issue of the digitization of agriculture as a means to promote and accelerate the recovery and post-pandemic transformation of agri-food systems. </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">The special chapter of the report highlights that the digital transformation of agriculture could make a significant contribution to achieving sustainable and inclusive agri-food systems (AFSs), for which it is imperative to agree on public and private promotion agendas</span></span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="color:#3070b6">.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> Here are the most important messages from Mr. Otero's speech:</p> <ul> <li>I would like to express my recognition of Alicia Bárcena and Julio Berdegué for this joint work between ECLAC, FAO and IICA that culminated in the ninth edition of the Outlook Report, which, among its many merits, is prospective and propositional. I would also like to reiterate what they noted in the sense that, amidst this profound crisis, we are seeing opportunities and challenges that must be transformed into transforming actions that prioritize the most pressing issues and, obviously, we must do this together. </li> </ul> <p> <img alt="Lamina 1" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5772ac7a-5188-4906-a021-196fdcc903dd" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Lamina%201_0.PNG" /></p> <p> </p> <ul> <li>That is why today, I would like to refer to the topic of digital agriculture as I’m convinced that it can make a substantial contribution to transforming and strengthening the agri-food systems as they evolve toward sustainability and social inclusion. There is no doubt that digital technologies are a concrete alternative to tackle many of the challenges we face today—increased production that is more sustainable and resilient; markets that are more efficient and accessible; safer foods that are more nutritious and traceable; and, of course, more inclusion and a better quality of life for all rural actors. Certainly, digital technologies generate and efficiently process large volumes of data, which strengthens learning, decision-making and operating processes. They also maximize the connection between people and devices, thereby bridging the gap between the rural and urban areas.</li> </ul> <p><img alt="Lamina 2" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="68bbacc4-c880-4114-8b31-f7195af33158" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Lamina%202.PNG" /></p> <p> </p> <ul> <li>While it is true that the digitalization of agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean is still emerging, it is picking up speed and will be inevitable, without losing sight of the fact that usage is still low and unequal due to a number of barriers. I would like to mention three of these: the first is a low level of connectivity. Based on studies by IICA, the IDB and Microsoft, we have determined that approximately 60% of our continent’s rural population lacks access to quality connectivity. The second barrier is that the existing skills to be able to take full advantage of the digital technologies are very limited—less than 17% of rural inhabitants have a skill related to digital technology. And the third barrier is the low degree of maturity of some of the technologies available in terms of ease of use and utility, both of which are being worked on today.</li> </ul> <p><img alt="Lamina 3" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c6792e5e-fce5-44aa-ae0f-a9a71d1eafe1" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Lamina%203.PNG" /></p> <p> </p> <ul> <li>There is no doubt that now is the time to drive and accelerate the digital revolution of the agri-food systems in order to move forward with their transformation in the context of the post-pandemic recovery. To that end, there are minimum conditions on which we must work: the first is to have a long-term, strategic vision based on leadership, political commitment and the integration of policies that, necessarily, are differentiated. The second condition is to enact efficient, inclusive institutional and governance mechanisms to address the interaction of policies across all sectors and to align the actions of different levels of government. For this, it is necessary to promote intersectoral and interinstitutional coordination processes with an emphasis on alliances with civil society and private actors. The third condition is to enable a set of tools that allow us to anticipate, evaluate and address long-term national and cross-border policies. These policies must be based on evidence that serves as a foundation to promote intervention in the sense that they must be effective and support the decision-making that maximizes the results mentioned previously.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><img alt="Lamina 4" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d1863e53-f995-40d5-ba17-12da53a1c20f" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Lamina%204.PNG" /></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">It is clear that we need a renewed institutional framework. Here I propose that this is a shortcoming of our policies. According to a study monitored by the OECD, only 17% of the public agricultural budget is earmarked for investments in innovation systems, biosecurity and infrastructure, despite the undeniable high financial and social return. I would like to stress that these institutional transformations are not exclusive to the State, but must also be supranational, with the active involvement of international cooperation and financing organizations, academia, and, of course, the research systems that are essential for generating knowledge on this agriculture that we are determined to transform. Thank you.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;margin-bottom:11px"> </p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"> <img alt="Porada" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="0e4a581a-f59e-4c94-8eb7-593740a3e760" height="271" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E%20Portada_0.PNG" width="252" /> <figcaption>Available <a href="https://www.agrirural.org/en">https://www.agrirural.org/en</a></figcaption> </figure> <p class="text-align-center"><br /> <strong><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">SEE FULL REPORT </span></span></span></strong></p> <p class="text-align-right"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="ES" style="font-size:20.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="font-family:&quot;HelveticaNeueLTStd-Th&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#00457c"><a href="https://repositorio.iica.int/handle/11324/18609" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline">THE OUTLOOK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AMERICAS: A Perspective on Latin America and the Caribbean</a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="text-align-right" style="margin-bottom: 11px;"> </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><br /> <strong><strong><img alt="jarias" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="484cffc6-98d6-4bf9-8220-7f7edcb6d0a4" height="127" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Joaquin_Arias2.jpg" width="127" class="align-left" /></strong></strong></p> <p><em><strong>Joaquin Arias</strong> holds a PhD in agricultural economics from Oklahoma State University, United States. He is an international technical specialist from IICA's Center for Strategic Analysis (CAESPA), based in Panama.</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em><img alt="Adrian Rodriguez" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c4ac876f-3304-4b11-937a-95ebe8866d3a" height="143" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Adrian%20Rodriguez.jpg" width="130" class="align-left" />Adrián Rodríguez </em></strong><em> is PhD. in Agricultural Economics from Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), in the United States, Chief of the Agricultural Development and Biodiversity Unit at ECLAC, Chile.  </em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Beduschi" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="84ea4c2f-0dd6-4f6d-a1ba-4b0634d3967a" height="135" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Beduschi%20FAO_0.jpg" width="135" class="align-left" /><em><strong>Luiz Beduschi </strong>is an Agricultural Engineer, PhD in Environmental Sciences, Policy Officer in Territorial Development of the FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean.</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Note: </strong>The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of ECLAC, FAO or IICA.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i>If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors: </i></strong><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><i>Joaquín Arias</i></a><strong><i> and </i></strong><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><i>Viviana Palmieri.</i></a></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-food-systems" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-Food Systems</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/impact-covid19" hreflang="en">IMPACT-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/trade-covid19" hreflang="en">TRADE-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/tags/perspectivas-cambio-climatico" hreflang="es">PERSPECTIVAS-CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/bioeconomy" hreflang="en">BIOECONOMY</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/digital-agriculture" hreflang="en">Digital Agriculture</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/web-seminars" hreflang="en">WEB SEMINARS</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/information-statistics" hreflang="en">INFORMATION-STATISTICS</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=136&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="PU13A3ekL9sGAI8ZI_z_F0dttcamQTk5MXexhTtygnk"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Thu, 02 Sep 2021 16:17:06 +0000 jarias 136 at https://blog.iica.int Food Security in the Caribbean https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/food-security-caribbean <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Food Security in the Caribbean</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/142" hreflang="zxx">Duncan Turnbull</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Fri, 04/23/2021 - 10:42</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>For decades the Caribbean has been <strong>over-reliant</strong> on expensive<strong> food imports</strong>. The World Bank estimates between <strong>80-90%</strong> of all food consumed in the region comes from abroad, and only three Caribbean countries (<strong>Guyana</strong>, <strong>Belize </strong>and <strong>Haiti</strong>) produce more than <strong>50%</strong> of their own food. </p> <table class="TableGrid2" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:Cambria,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing inequalities across the board, including in employment, housing, healthcare and food security.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>The <strong>COVID-19</strong> pandemic has <strong>exacerbated </strong>existing <strong>inequalities </strong>across the board, including in employment, housing, healthcare and food security. It is estimated that there are now <strong>2.7 million “food-insecure”</strong> people in the English-speaking Caribbean, and according to the third round of the <em>CARICOM COVID-19 Food Security and Livelihoods Impact Survey</em>, “71% of respondents observe higher than usual <strong>food prices</strong>” [<u><a href="https://www.wfp.org/publications/caribbean-covid-19-food-security-and-livelihoods-impact-survey-round-3-february-2021" target="_blank">link</a></u>]. </p> <p>According to that survey, the burden is disproportionately felt by <strong>low-income</strong> householders: 68% <strong>reduced </strong>their food <strong>consumption</strong>, 40% struggled with food stocks, and, as the results indicated, this part of society is “much more likely to meet their food needs at the expense of <strong>selling productive</strong> assets and <strong>cutting spending</strong> on other priorities such as health and education”. </p> <p>The impact also disproportionately cuts across other demographics. For example, only <strong>7%</strong> of Spanish-speaking respondents in Trinidad and Tobago had more than a week's worth of food stocks, compared to <strong>54%</strong> of English speakers. Spanish speakers in the country (many of whom are <strong>migrants </strong>from Venezuela) are comparatively reliant on informal/casual labour for income and thus faced significantly contracted incomes at a time of rising food prices. </p> <p>The pandemic has highlighted the <strong>fragility </strong>of <strong>regional supply chains</strong>. Sea freight <strong>costs </strong>and <strong>delays </strong>increased, the cold-storage chain was <strong>under-pressure</strong>, and farmers reported a <strong>lack of supplies</strong>. None of this was new – the region suffers frequent disruption from hurricanes – but after months of vastly <strong>reduced tourism</strong> (and tourist dollars), foreign reserves dwindled, and <strong>food prices</strong> became a serious and prolonged <strong>concern </strong>for much of the population. </p> <table class="TableGrid3" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:Cambria,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Solving [the challenges to achieve zero-hunger] requires redesigning the Caribbean food supply-chain in a way that considers water, energy and food security in the same breath.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Looking forward</strong>, the Caribbean <strong>population </strong>and <strong>income </strong>per capita are expected to <strong>grow substantially</strong> in the next 20 years. Yet the UN’s <u><a href="https://www.uma.es/smart-campus/navegador_de_ficheros/SmartUMA/descargar/2020_sustainable_development_report.pdf" target="_blank">Sustainable Development Report 2020</a></u> warns of “significant <strong>challenges </strong>remaining” or “major challenges remaining” for each Caribbean state’s efforts to <strong>achieve </strong>their <strong>goal </strong>of “zero hunger”. </p> <p>Solving this problem requires <strong>redesigning </strong>the Caribbean food <strong>supply-chain</strong> in a way that considers water, energy and food security in the same breath. These topics are intricately related in terms of <strong>synergies</strong>, <strong>linkages </strong>and<strong> trade-offs</strong>. Water is a finite resource yet both agriculture and energy depend heavily on it; tackling the food security challenge necessitates <strong>efficiency measures</strong> to reduce <strong>water </strong>and <strong>energy </strong>consumption yet simultaneously increasing yields and nutrition.  However, given the wide <strong>variation </strong>in environmental, economic and technological <strong>systems </strong>in the <strong>Caribbean</strong>, both policy and technical interventions will look different across the region. For example, <strong>water </strong>is <strong>not distributed evenly</strong> within the Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda has around 600 cubic meters (cbm) renewable freshwater resources per inhabitant per year, compared to over 350,000cbm per inhabitant per year in Guyana [<u><a href="https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0360544219325198?token=8098030F06E880045C4F53582B07AB10AB9C90F093627CE27EAFA5747EB149B164CAE87D5658EDF4AE07A592837A2CDC&amp;originRegion=us-east-1&amp;originCreation=20210408192211" target="_blank">Link</a></u>]. </p> <p>Until now, the Caribbean is predominately a <strong>raw material producer</strong> and in recent years the region has largely grown <strong>crops </strong>that are either in <strong>structural decline</strong> (such as tobacco and sugar) or simple crops that require little or <strong>no processing</strong> (such as bananas and sweet potatoes). Exporting unprocessed primary products means the region captures less of the value-chain, thereby reducing <strong>local revenues</strong> and new <strong>job opportunities </strong>and skills <strong>training</strong>. It also means <strong>farmers </strong>are more <strong>exposed </strong>to raw commodity <strong>prices </strong>as they have no differentiated product. </p> <p>Therefore, leaders in the Caribbean agriculture sector must shift to encompass greater <strong>vertical integration</strong>. There will be a pivot to <strong>value-add crops</strong>, construction of processing facilities, and a focus on exporting finished products. This requires <strong>investment </strong>in internationally certified<strong> food facilities</strong>, cold-chain <strong>distribution</strong>, and building <strong>human capacity</strong> across the sector. Careful consideration must be given to <strong>water management</strong>, both in the <strong>agriculture </strong>and the <strong>processing </strong>legs of the industry. <strong>Micro-grids</strong>, powered by <strong>renewable energy</strong>, will increasingly provide localised and consistent power to island communities, and can be strategically positioned next to large industrial customers (such as food processing facilities) but also service <strong>dispersed </strong>residential communities. Large-scale farmers will grow alongside smallholder farmers, both selling into the same processing facility and thereby opening up <strong>new markets</strong> for <strong>smallholders</strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid4" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:Cambria,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“A more expansive Guyanese agriculture sector positively contributes to the Caribbean food security balance abroad, and helps Guyana diversify its economy and avoid the resource curse back home.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Guyana </strong>– the Caribbean’s <strong>fastest growing economy</strong> – has all the ingredients to <strong>be the breadbasket for the region</strong>. It has rich agricultural <strong>traditions</strong>, fertile <strong>soils</strong>, excellent <strong>climate </strong>and plentiful <strong>land</strong>. Moreover, it has the ingredients to be a <strong>processing powerhouse</strong>: high availability of <strong>freshwater</strong>, a young <strong>workforce</strong>, an under-capacity <strong>port </strong>with regular routes to the Caribbean and North American markets, and a promising outlook for micro-grid <strong>renewable energy</strong> solutions. With the billions of dollars of <strong>international investment</strong> currently flowing into the nation (as part of the recent <strong>oil </strong>discoveries), the nation is in a <strong>critical stage</strong> of development. A more expansive Guyanese agriculture sector positively contributes to the <strong>Caribbean food security balance </strong>abroad, and helps <strong>Guyana </strong>diversify its economy and avoid the resource curse back home. </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="font-family:Cambria,serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Duncan Turnbull" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="3d98b867-b5b6-4fac-bfd8-7044e5f0d7e0" height="169" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Duncan%20Turnbull.jpeg" width="169" class="align-left" />Duncan Turnbull</span></span></i></b><i><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> was educated at the University of Oxford and Stanford Graduate School of Business, and works in the intersection of agriculture and renewable energy. He has invested in and operated over 15,000ha of agriculture projects in three continents. </span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><br /> <span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:Cambria,serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Note</span></i></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</span></b></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style="font-family:Cambria,serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors:<b> </b></span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int"><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:blue">Joaquín Arias</span></span></i></a></span><b><i> </i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">and </span></span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int"><i><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:blue">Viviana Palmieri.</span></span></i></a></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-food-systems" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-Food Systems</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=124&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="pDuRH4hNOn7aM3h16oFlRyrN_ATUC0eFrlhjjo1BlhU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Fri, 23 Apr 2021 16:42:22 +0000 vpalmieri 124 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/food-security-caribbean#comments No existe seguridad alimentaria sin sanidad vegetal https://blog.iica.int/index.php/blog/no-existe-seguridad-alimentaria-sin-sanidad-vegetal <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">No existe seguridad alimentaria sin sanidad vegetal</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/140" hreflang="zxx">Caio Tibério da Rocha</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 04/11/2021 - 15:43</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><a name="_Hlk39219192" id="_Hlk39219192"></a></span></span></span></p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“La protección de la salud de las plantas no debe ser un tema de interés solo para especialistas, ya que está vinculada a temas centrales de la agenda pública global como la reducción de la pobreza, la erradicación del hambre, la preservación del ambiente y el desarrollo económico. Hoy no se puede hablar de seguridad alimentaria sin hablar de sanidad vegetal, y este es el mensaje que queremos transmitirle al mundo.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Uno de los impactos que ha tenido la pandemia es que el mundo ha tomado consciencia, tal vez con más claridad que nunca, de la importancia de <strong>garantizar el derecho a la alimentación</strong>. La crisis sanitaria ha dejado al desnudo la <strong>fragilidad </strong>de los <strong>sistemas agroalimentarios</strong>. Y la disminución de la actividad económica ha tenido un efecto devastador sobre los medios de vida de millones de personas, lo que pone en riesgo la seguridad alimentaria global.</p> <p>Sin embargo, gran parte de la población mundial no está al tanto de algo que los ingenieros agrónomos conocemos muy bien: que no se puede hablar de <strong>seguridad alimentaria </strong>sin hablar de <strong>sanidad vegetal</strong>. Y es nuestro deber transmitir ese mensaje a las grandes audiencias. Los profesionales debemos tener un <strong>rol más activo</strong>, no solamente en el trabajo a favor de la sanidad vegetal, sino también en la <strong>comunicación </strong>de la cuestión, para que la opinión pública sepa que l<strong>as plantas contribuyen a un 80% de nuestra alimentación</strong>, además de ser la fuente de prácticamente todo el <strong>oxígeno </strong>que respiramos cada día.</p> <p>Resulta imprescindible, en ese sentido, <strong>concientizar </strong>a la gente sobre la necesidad de <strong>destinar recursos</strong> a esta materia y trabajar en la <strong>investigación y el desarrollo</strong>. El foco debe ser la <strong>prevención </strong>de las enfermedades, lo que contribuye al acceso a los alimentos y también a enormes ahorros económicos. La realidad nos demuestra una y otra vez que no podemos dar por garantizada la salud de las plantas que sostienen la <strong>nutrición humana</strong>.</p> <p><img alt="Ilustración bananas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f2b6a206-f406-4072-a569-5f770b4d47a8" height="201" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Ilustr_Caio.jpg" width="302" class="align-left" />En consecuencia, la protección de la salud de las plantas no puede ser un tema limitado al debate entre especialistas en ámbitos académicos o técnicos, porque está directamente vinculado con las cuestiones que hoy la comunidad internacional considera las más <strong>importantes </strong>y <strong>urgentes </strong>de la <strong>agenda pública</strong>: la reducción de la pobreza, la erradicación del hambre, la preservación del ambiente y el desarrollo económico.</p> <p>El mensaje debe ser claro y directo: la <strong>importancia </strong>de la <strong>sanidad vegetal</strong> es tal que su <strong>impacto </strong>es <strong>decisivo </strong>incluso sobre la alimentación de aquellas personas que no tienen a los productos de origen vegetal directo como el componente primordial de su dieta. Es que la carne o los productos lácteos son producidos a través de la <strong>cría de animales</strong>, que simplemente no podrían crecer si no tienen a disposición <strong>plantas saludables</strong> o no se alimentan de piensos de calidad (que son de origen vegetal) para <strong>desarrollarse</strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid2" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Las principales víctimas de las plagas y enfermedades de las plantas son los más vulnerables: tanto quienes pasan hambre en las ciudades como los pobladores rurales pobres, que tienen en la agricultura su principal o su única fuente de alimentos y de ingresos.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Acertadamente, la Organización declaró al 2020 como el Año Internacional de la Sanidad Vegetal y, dada la situación global de la pandemia, decidió extenderlo al primer semestre de 2021.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="background:#002060; border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:none; width:587px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; height:60px; background-color:#002060; border-top:2px solid #5b9bd5; border-right:2px solid #5b9bd5; border-left:2px solid #5b9bd5" valign="top"> <p style="margin-top:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="text-autospace:none"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:10.5pt"><span style="line-height:115%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:white">Las plagas y las enfermedades que afectan a las plantas provocan que hasta un 40% de los cultivos alimentarios se pierda, lo que ha sido cuantificado en unos 220.000 millones de dólares anuales por las Naciones Unidas.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Más allá de los números, siempre fríos, las principales <strong>víctimas </strong>de las <strong>plagas </strong>y <strong>enfermedades </strong>de las plantas son los <strong>más vulnerables</strong>: tanto quienes pasan hambre en las <strong>ciudades </strong>como los pobladores <strong>rurales </strong>pobres, que tienen en la agricultura su principal o su única fuente de alimentos y de ingresos.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Así como el <strong>Covid-19</strong> puso en primer plano la necesidad de mantener la <strong>higiene </strong>para evitar la propagación de <strong>enfermedades infecciosas </strong>que afectan a las <strong>personas</strong>, esta también debe ser una oportunidad para <strong>concientizar </strong>a la población mundial sobre la importancia de la <strong>higiene </strong>para preservar la <strong>sanidad vegetal</strong>.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><img alt="Ilustración bananas 2" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="983b788e-37c1-4f8d-82af-9a318be18423" height="208" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Ilustr_Caio2.jpg" width="291" class="align-right" />La enfermedad del banano es otro ejemplo de <strong>pandemia </strong>que tenemos a mano, con mucho menos espacio en los medios de comunicación que la de Covid-19, pero que también tiene un fuerte <strong>impacto</strong> <strong>social </strong>y <strong>económico </strong>en todo el mundo, al ser clave para la seguridad alimentaria global y para la subsistencia de millones de pequeños productores agrícolas. Hoy la <strong>banana </strong>enfrenta su amenaza más grave en décadas: la cepa raza 4 tropical (<strong>R4T</strong>) del hongo <strong>fusarium </strong>está devastando las plantaciones de muchos de los <strong>135 países</strong> donde se cultiva.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“La cepa raza 4 tropical (R4T) del hongo fusarium está devastando las plantaciones de muchos de los 135 países donde se cultiva. Esta enfermedad ataca a las plantaciones de banana Cavendish, que abarca el 50 por ciento de la producción mundial y es la única que se comercializa en América Latina y el Caribe.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Esta enfermedad ataca a las <strong>plantaciones </strong>de banana <strong>Cavendish</strong>, que abarca el 50 por ciento de la producción mundial y es la <strong>única </strong>que se <strong>comercializa </strong>en <strong>América Latina y el Caribe</strong>. La R4T se originó en el sudeste asiático y ya fue detectada en América Latina, en plantaciones del <strong>norte de Colombia</strong>. Se <strong>transmite </strong>a través del <strong>suelo </strong>y hoy <strong>no tiene cura</strong>, por lo cual la <strong>higiene </strong>de quienes visitan las <strong>plantaciones </strong>de banana es la única solución conocida para <strong>evitar </strong>su <strong>propagación</strong>.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">El <strong>Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura</strong> (IICA) es uno de los integrantes de una <strong>alianza </strong>a nivel <strong>global </strong>con actores <strong>públicos </strong>y <strong>privados</strong>, que está trabajando en el desarrollo de conocimiento, tecnologías y mecanismos que permitan encontrar una <strong>solución científica</strong> definitiva, que posibilite la <strong>erradicación </strong>del hongo. Y es justamente la <strong>comunicación </strong>y la <strong>educación </strong>para pequeños productores y consumidores una de las <strong>herramientas fundamentales</strong> que la alianza propone utilizar.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><strong>Las implicancias de la sanidad vegetal son múltiples</strong></p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Mantener <strong>sanas </strong>las <strong>plantas </strong>que sostienen la seguridad alimentaria resulta un <strong>requisito ineludible</strong> para abrir las puertas del <strong>comercio </strong>y garantizar el acceso a los <strong>mercados</strong>, muy especialmente de <strong>productores chicos y medianos</strong> de países en desarrollo. El papel de los ingenieros agrónomos, entonces, resulta clave no sólo en las áreas rurales, donde los alimentos se cultivan, sino también para verificar las condiciones de transporte de los mismos.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Por otro lado, la pandemia hizo crecer en las áreas urbanas la <strong>conciencia </strong>sobre la importancia de mantener una <strong>relación armónica</strong> con la naturaleza y hoy existe una <strong>demanda </strong>cada vez mayor de <strong>alimentos </strong>que lleguen al consumidor con <strong>garantías </strong>respecto a la forma en que fueron producidos. </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Debemos invertir más en investigación científica, de manera que los productos fitosanitarios sean un aliado en el combate a las plagas, aseguren la sostenibilidad de los sistemas agrícolas y garanticen la supervivencia de la biodiversidad.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Se deben compartir <strong>buenas prácticas agrícolas</strong> para mantener las<strong> plantas sanas </strong>al tiempo que se asegure la <strong>preservación </strong>del <strong>ambiente</strong>. No puede haber un dilema en ese sentido. Debemos <strong>invertir </strong>más en investigación científica, de manera que los productos fitosanitarios sean un aliado en el <strong>combate </strong>a las plagas, aseguren la <strong>sostenibilidad </strong>de los sistemas agrícolas y garanticen la supervivencia de la <strong>biodiversidad </strong>a la que tanto daño le ha hecho el hombre. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px">Los ingenieros <strong>agrónomos</strong>, entonces, tenemos un <strong>rol </strong>cada vez más <strong>trascendente</strong> para el <strong>planeta </strong>y para las <strong>personas</strong>. Debemos estar a la altura.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><em><strong>Nota</strong>: este artículo fue publicado originalmente en http://www.cpia.org.ar/agropost/nota/98 y se reproduce con autorización del Consejo de los Profesionales del Agro, Alimentos y Agroindustria (CPIA) y del autor.</em></p> <p><br /> <img alt="Caio Rocha" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="80ad6a0d-772b-43d9-a783-2e3589406a98" height="124" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Caio_Rocha.png" width="124" class="align-left" /><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Caio Tibério da Rocha </span></span></span></i></b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">es Representante en Argentina y Coordinador Regional para la Región Sur (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Uruguay y Paraguay) del Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura, IICA.</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Nota</span></span></i></b><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: Las opiniones expresadas en este blog son responsabilidad del autor y no reflejan necesariamente la opinión del IICA.</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Si tiene preguntas o sugerencias de mejora del BlogIICA favor contactar a los editores: </span></span></i><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int"><i><span lang="es-419" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:blue">Joaquín Arias</span></span></span></i></a><i><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> y </span></span></i><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int"><i><span lang="es-419" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="es-419" xml:lang="es-419"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:blue">Viviana Palmieri.</span></span></span></i></a></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-systems" hreflang="en">FOOD SYSTEMS</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=121&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="W_zeVtZ8LrasASamIk4MA1a7zDt87frri4vHX8rrOv0"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 16:47:22 +0000 vpalmieri 121 at https://blog.iica.int Haciendo un balance a seis meses de COVID: ¿Cómo puede el comercio ayudar a reconstruir mejor? https://blog.iica.int/index.php/blog/haciendo-un-balance-seis-meses-covid-como-puede-comercio-ayudar-reconstruir-mejor <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Taking Stock after Six Months of COVID: How Can Trade Help Rebuild Better?</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/120" hreflang="zxx">Adriana García Vargas</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 11/04/2020 - 17:47</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>It has now been over <strong>six months</strong> since the WHO declared COVID-19 a global <strong>pandemic</strong>. Besides the enormous <strong>cost </strong>in terms of <strong>human lives</strong>, the global economy is being pushed to its worst <strong>recession </strong>in decades. The time passed allows us to better evaluate the <strong>economic and trade impact</strong> in different regions and sectors, and to reflect about how to help <strong>rebuild in a resilient and sustainable way</strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width: 100%; border-collapse: collapse; border-width: initial; border-style: none; border-color: initial;" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“COVID-19 has stopped—and even reversed—much of the progress made towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>The most recent <u><a href="https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2020/09/30/world-economic-outlook-october-2020" target="_blank">IMF</a></u> forecasts indicate that the <strong>global economy will contract</strong> by 4.4% in 2020. Among the developing regions, <strong>Latin America and the Caribbean</strong> will be <strong>hardest hit</strong>, with an output <strong>decline </strong>of<strong> 8.1%</strong>. While developed countries will also experience a dramatic recession (on average -5.8%), the <strong>largest economic and social damage</strong> is expected in the <strong>developing world</strong>, with between <u><a href="https://unctad.org/news/covid-19-unctad-warns-lost-decade-if-countries-adopt-austerity" target="_blank">90 and 120 million people</a></u> pushed into <strong>extreme poverty</strong>. </p> <p><strong>COVID-19</strong> has stopped—and even <strong>reversed</strong>—much of the <strong>progress </strong>made towards <strong>achieving </strong>the <strong>Sustainable Development Goals</strong>. In fact, <u><a href="http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/covid-19-human-development-course-decline-year-first-time-1990" target="_blank">UNDP</a></u> estimates that this year global human development could fall for the first time since 1990, when the concept was first introduced and measured.</p> <p>While <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr858_e.htm" target="_blank"><u>world trade also experienced a sharp decrease</u></a> in the first half of 2020, it seems that the worst-case scenario predicted earlier this year will not materialize. <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/agri_27aug20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u><strong>Agricultural trade</strong></u></a>, in particular, <strong>has proved</strong> to be surprisingly <strong>resilient</strong>: some sectors did suffer as a consequence of the <strong>bottlenecks faced </strong>(such as logistical issues), but in general world <strong>agricultural exports</strong> actually increased in the first part of the year. Moreover, while a number of countries first responded by <strong>banning </strong>or restricting their <strong>exports </strong>of <strong>foodstuffs</strong>, most of these <strong>measures </strong>were <strong>lifted after </strong>a short time. The FAO also reports that global production of staple foods is expected to grow, and that stocks remain at high levels. </p> <p>It seems that the <strong>world managed to avert</strong> the much-feared threat of a <strong>global food crisis</strong> as it happened in 2007-2008. However, while COVID-19 has not had such a strong impact as expected on the <strong>availability </strong>of food, the resulting economic <strong>recession </strong>does <strong>threaten </strong>to <strong>constrain access</strong> to food for many. In fact, the director of the World Food Program warned in late July about the risk of <a href="https://es.wfp.org/noticias/hambre-aumenta-a-medida-casos-covid-19-se-disparan-America-Latina-Caribe" target="_blank"><u>increasing hunger and food insecurity in Latin America and the Caribbean</u></a>, and <strong>IICA </strong>also found that several countries in the region have a <strong>high level of <a href="https://blog.iica.int/en/blog/vulnerabilidad-alimentaria-ante-covid-19" target="_blank">food vulnerability</a></strong>.</p> <table class="TableGrid3" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“While COVID-19 has not had such a strong impact as expected on the availability of food, the resulting economic recession does threaten to constrain access to food for many.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>As <strong>governments </strong>step up their <strong>efforts </strong>to help their populations and <strong>rebuild </strong>their economies, the calls for these efforts to promote a <strong>sustainable recovery</strong> also increase. And trade can play an important role to help achieve this goal. The experience of these six months has shown that <strong>keeping markets open is crucial</strong> for countries to have access to food and important medical supplies. Trade policy can also be an important tool to promote <strong>sustainable development</strong>. For that, it also needs supportive <strong>multilateral </strong>rules. </p> <p>There are <strong>two actions</strong> that the <strong>global trade community</strong> could do in the next months to support a <strong>sustainable recovery</strong>: </p> <p>1. Concluding as soon as possible the <strong>negotiations to discipline fisheries subsidies</strong>: reducing these harmful subsidies would achieve <a href="https://indicators.report/targets/14-6/" target="_blank"><u>SDG target 14.6</u></a>, and contribute to ensure the sustainability of the world’s <strong>marine resources</strong>. The fact that WTO members have now started <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/fish_21sep20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u>text-based negotiations</u></a> in this area is very welcome.</p> <p>2. Agreeing at the next WTO Ministerial Conference on <strong>concrete steps to reform agricultural trade</strong>: after a pause of several months, on 25 September WTO members also <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/agng_25sep20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u>resumed the agriculture negotiations</u></a>. An outcome in this area could contribute to <a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/hunger/" target="_blank"><u>SDG 2</u></a> and its specific targets, including <strong>ensuring sustainable food production systems</strong>. </p> <table class="TableGrid4" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Trade policy can also be an important tool to promote sustainable development. For that, it also needs supportive multilateral rules.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Many governments have responded to the COVID-19 crisis with important amounts of <a href="https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news20_e/agri_18jun20_e.htm" target="_blank"><u><strong>support to the agricultural sector</strong></u></a>. While it is of vital importance to <strong>protect </strong>the livelihoods of <strong>farmers </strong>and ensure that they continue to produce food, it is also important to <strong>avoid </strong>an increase in<strong> policies that distort</strong> global <strong>markets </strong>or <strong>harm the environment</strong>. According to the <a href="https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=134_134299-gywwih2rh3&amp;title=COVID-19-and-Global-Food-Systems" target="_blank">OECD</a>, a large share of the support policies that countries currently apply are of the most trade-distorting type, and also exacerbate the environmental impact of agriculture. An agreement to <strong>cut trade-distorting support</strong> would make resources available for more efficient <strong>investments </strong>that can help make the global <strong>food system </strong>more resilient, sustainable and productive. </p> <table class="TableGrid4" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Experience has also showed us that export bans and restrictions can threaten global food security. Clearer and stronger WTO rules on export restrictions could help prevent this from happening.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Experience has also showed us that <a href="https://blog.iica.int/blog/restricciones-las-exportaciones-alimentos-ante-covid-19" target="_blank"><u>export bans and restrictions</u></a> can threaten global food security. While the <strong>measures applied</strong> as a response to COVID-19 <strong>did not reach the proportions</strong> of 2007-2008 or <strong>provoke a global food crisis</strong>, this doesn’t mean that it could not happen in another future crisis scenario. <strong>Clearer and stronger</strong> WTO <strong>rules </strong>on export restrictions could help prevent this from happening.</p> <p><br /> A previous version of this article was published at <u><a href="https://login.mailingwork.de/-viewonline2/1593/8221/1977/SZcQvNla/jOMcXBYaco/1" target="_blank">https://login.mailingwork.de/-viewonline2/1593/8221/1977/SZcQvNla/jOMcXBYaco/1</a></u></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Arial,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Adriana García" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1bdbe2a2-06d9-45e2-8252-944ca70eea8b" height="154" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Adriana%20Garc%C3%ADa%20Vargas.png" width="154" class="align-left" />Adriana García Vargas</span></span></i></b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> is an economist, consultant and independent researcher specializing in international trade. She currently works in Frankfurt, Germany from where she supports the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) and is a tutor of the Financial Risk Management course at the Frankfurt School for Finance and Administration.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">Note</span></i></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA</span></strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors:</span></i></strong><strong><i> </i></strong><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><i>Joaquín Arias</i></a><strong><i> </i></strong><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">and </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><i>Viviana Palmieri.</i></a></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align:justify"> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/trade-covid19" hreflang="en">TRADE-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=103&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="gH_MCf1w9mXMBGjYwGP9UAErg3TM9We2h3d30KZyBYU"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Wed, 04 Nov 2020 18:10:23 +0000 vpalmieri 103 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/taking-stock-after-six-months-covid-how-can-trade-help-rebuild-better#comments YOUth Matters in Agriculture https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/youth-matters-agriculture <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">YOUth Matters in Agriculture</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/118" hreflang="zxx">Roxanne Waithe</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 10/26/2020 - 15:06</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="Future Farmers Project" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="0c41a99d-1e01-4e71-a68d-2d8941469584" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Future_Farmers.png" />In Barbados there is a drive to engage <strong>youth in agriculture</strong> because of the growing concern that the sector is led by an aging farmer population.  The major <strong>challenge </strong>is to <strong>stimulate</strong> domestic <strong>food production</strong> to meet the <strong>nutritional needs</strong> of the Barbados populace, and at the same time significantly <strong>reduce the level of imported food</strong>. </p> <p>So how do we work together with the Ministry of Agriculture and other partners to <strong>ignite the love for farming </strong>among our <strong>young people</strong> when the trend is to work in other sectors such as information and communications technology services, finance or tourism?   </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“The primary purpose of the Youth Farm is to show young people that there <u>is</u> money in agriculture.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br /> <strong>Show them the Money! </strong><br /> <br /> The IICA Delegation in Barbados recognized that many students in Barbadian schools <strong>lacked access</strong> to <strong>technical training </strong>and education on <strong>farming </strong>and were not being encouraged to <strong>perceive agriculture </strong>as a <strong>viable </strong>and profitable future <strong>career</strong>. </p> <p>In 2012 IICA initiated the <strong>Youth Farm Summer Programme</strong>, an eight-week <strong>intensive training </strong>plan in <strong>crop </strong>and <strong>livestock </strong>farming with a focus on diversified vegetables, and meat for local markets. The primary <strong>purpose </strong>of the Youth Farm is to show young people that there is money in agriculture.  <br />  <br /> The Youth Farm has three components:</p> <ol> <li><strong>Technical training</strong> that leads to certification in either a Caribbean Vocational Qualification in Crop Production Level 1, Livestock Rearing Level 1, or Aquaculture Grow Out Operations Level 1.</li> <li>A <strong>work-release</strong> programme where candidates undertake work with industry partners in rearing small ruminants, poultry and pigs, they work on commercial crop farms, or with technicians from the Ministry of Agriculture in crop farming or fisheries.</li> <li>A rigorous <strong>agribusiness skills training</strong> week where the focus in on building soft skills, professional etiquette and preparation for starting and managing their own business venture.</li> </ol> <p>To date the scheme has trained and certified <strong>more than 200 young people</strong>, many who have gone on to study agriculture at higher levels, started their own business venture, or gained employment with our industry partners. </p> <p><img alt="Future farmer stories" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="721ce087-2fe7-453d-8968-2071c27ee475" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Future%20farmer%20stories.png" /></p> <p><strong>Give Young Farmers a Voice!</strong></p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #5b9bd5; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #5b9bd5; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“It is vital that the young agripreneurs are offered a voice, and that we take note of what they have to say”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>For the <strong>young</strong> progressive <strong>farmers </strong>that have graduated from the Youth Farm Program and are working hard to <strong>build </strong>their <strong>agribusinesses </strong>in Barbados, it is vital that these agripreneurs are offered a <strong>voice</strong>, and that we take note of what they have to say.  </p> <p>In July 2020, The IICA Delegation in Barbados, with financial support from the Barbados Environmental Conservation Trust, created a <strong>platform for sharing</strong> information and knowledge products that supports business development for youth in agriculture. The <a href="https://sites.google.com/view/futurefarmersbb/" target="_blank">Future Farmers Project</a>,  seeks to provide a space to <strong>foster continued innovation</strong> in agriculture, and for the youth to <strong>have a voice</strong> at the national <strong>policy-making</strong> level.</p> <p>The <strong>response </strong>so far has been <strong>tremendous</strong>, and IICA Barbados has produced its first <a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-10/Analysis%20Of%20Local%20Agribusiness%20Trends%20Barbados%202020.pdf" target="_blank">Future Farmers <strong>Project Report</strong></a> featuring the views and experiences of our youth entrepreneurs.                </p> <p> </p> <p> <a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-10/Analysis%20Of%20Local%20Agribusiness%20Trends%20Barbados%202020.pdf" id="" rel="" target="_blank" title=""><img alt="Youth Farmers Project Report" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="51f4d18b-7f4c-4fd6-a439-1492459700ef" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Portada.png" /></a></p> <p><br />  </p> <p style="margin-bottom:12px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Roxanne Waithe" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="278c0aa9-3753-42fe-b666-54647f78e805" height="186" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Roxanne%20Waithe.png" width="186" class="align-left" />Roxanne Waithe</span></span></span></i></b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> is Technical Specialist at the IICA Delegation in Barbados. She has a PhD.in education from the University of the West Indies with a focus on technical and vocational education and training. She provides expertise in the field of training and certification for persons at all levels involved in the agrifood sector, and has proven experience in developing and managing national and regional projects. </span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Note</span></span></i></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"> </p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid black; width:589px; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid black; border-right:2px solid black; border-left:2px solid black" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">If you have questions or suggestions for improving the BlogIICA, please write to the editors: </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><i>Joaquín Arias</i></a><strong><i><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight:normal" xml:lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"> and </span></i></strong><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><i>Viviana Palmieri.</i></a></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align:justify; margin-bottom:12px"> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/youth" hreflang="en">YOUTH</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title">Blog comments</h2> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-392" about="/index.php/comment/392" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1603986454"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/392#comment-392" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Quede fascinada con este…</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=392&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="oFb4poQKchE7kRZf0_eIJajQ0gd0d89rYbQyZBvyqns"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Lupe Patricia Llumiguano Fierro</div> </div> <strong>Thu, 10/29/2020 - 08:21 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-10-29T14:21:06+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Quede fascinada con este programa de la Representación de Barbados, mis felicitaciones y como me encantaría que esta experiencia se replique en mas piases como mi lindo Ecuador, me parece que en esta época de crisis mundial, a todos incluidos jóvenes y adultos nos interesa generar recursos y el proyecto muestra que en la agricultura y ganadería si se puede generar dinero. Adelante Barbados!!!!</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=102&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="RgqgJXWdJbUWF8bGjqcIfommGu390_QDAnwfcgzWjOo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 26 Oct 2020 21:06:14 +0000 vpalmieri 102 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/youth-matters-agriculture#comments Measuring the True Cost of Food https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/measuring-true-cost-food <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Measuring the True Cost of Food</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/109" hreflang="zxx">David Laborde</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/110" hreflang="zxx">Marie Parent</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/102" hreflang="zxx">Valeria Piñeiro</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 09/21/2020 - 14:08</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="foto super mercado ifpri" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="712c256e-714d-4e7b-8896-f06a43bf1612" height="388" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/super%20mercado.JPG" width="583" /> <figcaption>Photo credit: <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/gilbert_mercier/49850109796/">Gilbert Mercie</a>r</figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p><strong>What do we mean by the “true cost” of food?</strong></p> <p>When people think of food prices, they typically think about the price paid by consumers at the time of purchase (the “private cost”). However, this price may not include all the costs to society. These “social costs” also encompass environmental and public health impacts stemming from practices and features of global and local food systems—including air and water pollution, overdrawn aquifers, antibiotic resistance, and diet-related diseases like diabetes. While consumers don’t pay these costs upfront, the costs are borne by society later in other ways: for example, reduced harvests as a result of land erosion or soil degradation.<br /> Policy can shape which social costs emerge and their significance by influencing four food system drivers: how much we produce, what we produce, how we produce, and where we produce. Some of these factors cross borders, thus affecting international public goods. When they do, they become international social costs that require international policy to be appropriately addressed.</p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:5px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:5px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“‘Social costs’ also encompass environmental and public health impacts stemming from practices and features of global and local food systems—including air and water pollution, overdrawn aquifers, antibiotic resistance, and diet-related diseases like diabetes.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong> Has the true cost of food been measured?</strong></p> <p>In our <u><a href="https://www.g20-insights.org/policy_briefs/true-cost-of-food/" target="_blank">G20 Policy Brief</a></u>, we compile a variety of existing estimates of some of the social costs of food in the United States and compare them to other food-system-wide estimates. Unfortunately, no internationally harmonized approach to measure the true cost of food currently exists. Without such an approach, it is difficult for countries to even discuss these issues, let alone consider reform.</p> <p><strong>What should be done?</strong></p> <p>The G20 is well situated to act as a leader in catalyzing international governance to address the challenges surrounding the true cost of food. We offer three proposals for G20 action: (1) mandating the development of a globally harmonized measurement of the true cost of food, (2) coordinating reform of harmful policies, and (3) setting the agenda for the introduction of beneficial policies. Proposal 1 would provide the knowledge-sharing needed to promote a common language and vision among G20 countries, while Proposals 2 and 3 comprehensively address critical policy reforms.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="G20 action" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="fcd7d6fb-2a14-4855-a112-82226c212fed" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Figura%20G20.png" /> <figcaption><em>Three Proposals for G20 Action</em></figcaption> </figure> <p> </p> <p>To begin the process, the G20 must give a mandate to the international scientific community, including organizations such as the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), IFPRI, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Meetings of Agricultural Chief Scientists of G20 States (MACS-G20), to develop a harmonized method to measure the true cost of food. This method could be a central contribution to the <u><a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/food-systems-summit-2021" target="_blank">United Nations Food System Summit in 2021 </a></u>if it is consistent, evidence-based, and robust across countries and food products. The international scientific community will be able to use this measurement method to assess the relative magnitude of various social costs of food and to identify key policy types that contribute to food systems’ “hidden” costs. The G20 can then use this assessment to coordinate policy reforms aimed at removing harmful policy incentives that increase the social cost of food, and to propose beneficial policies that offset or reduce specific food system costs in socially acceptable ways. G20 member countries could repurpose money from the harmful policies removed in accordance with Proposal 2 for the beneficial policies in Proposal 3.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:5px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:5px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“By establishing a clear understanding and measurement of the true cost of food, including all market failures, countries will be better able to design and repurpose their current agricultural policies to achieve a triple win: improved productivity, resilience, and environmental stability.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>By establishing a clear understanding and measurement of the true cost of food, including all market failures, countries will be better able to design and repurpose their current agricultural policies to achieve a triple win: improved productivity, resilience, and environmental stability.</p> <p><em><u><a href="https://t20saudiarabia.org.sa/en/About/Pages/whats.aspx" target="_blank">Think20 (T20) </a></u>is a G20 engagement group that connects and collaborates with think tanks around the world to provide ideas and recommendations to G20 leaders. This blog originally appeared at <u><a href="http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/true-cost-food" target="_blank">Food Security Portal </a></u>and pulls from one of the briefs published by the T20 task force on Sustainable Energy, Food, and Water Systems, one of ten T20 task forces for this year’s Saudi Arabia G20 Presidency..</em></p> <p><em><strong><img alt="David Laborde" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="2261f9dd-57d2-4ede-b04e-33c98e0577f3" height="99" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/David%20Laborde.png" width="99" class="align-left" />David Laborde </strong>is a Senior Research Fellow in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division and the Theme Leader on Macroeconomics and Trade for the International Food Policy Research Institute. He has a doctoral degree in International Economy from the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour</em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong><img alt="Marie Parent" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c9c3b2bf-816e-460a-84ba-e72243ba9eda" height="96" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Marie%20Parent.png" width="96" class="align-left" />Marie Parent </strong>is a Research Analyst at the International Food Policy Research Institute. She provides support to cross-country research on SDGs 2.1, 2.3, and 2.4. Her projects involve multiple partner organizations and methodologies including CGE modelling, cluster analysis, and systematic reviews. Marie holds a Master of Public Policy from the University of California, Berkeley.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><em><strong><img alt="Valeria Piñeiro" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6064f27a-c757-48a7-a52d-f1baa544e172" height="95" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Valeria%20pi%C3%B1eiro.png" width="95" class="align-left" />Valeria Piñeiro</strong> is a Senior Research Coordinator at the International Food Policy Research Institute. She received her Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics from the University of Maryland and she is also a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University Advanced Academic Programs. She has consulted for many organizations, including the World Bank.</em></p> <p><em><strong>Note: The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</strong></em></p> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse:collapse; border:none"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid #002060; width:587px; padding:0in 7px 0in 7px; border-top:2px solid #002060; border-right:2px solid #002060; border-left:2px solid #002060" valign="top"> <p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto">Do you have questions or suggestions to improve the BlogIICA? Please write to the editors: </span></span><a href="mailto:joaquin.arias@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto">joaquin.arias@iica.int</span></span></a><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto"> and </span></span><a href="mailto:viviana.palmieri@iica.int" style="color:blue; text-decoration:underline"><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:Roboto">viviana.palmieri@iica.int</span></span></a> </span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-systems" hreflang="en">FOOD SYSTEMS</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-food-systems" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-Food Systems</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=94&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="-ieKzk9cBHrq1csUWnyY5CeLejFZ03NFhpy9ix_8Syo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 21 Sep 2020 20:08:17 +0000 jarias 94 at https://blog.iica.int Food market stability: A necessary step for global social and environmental sustainability https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/food-market-stability-necessary-step-global-social-and-environmental-sustainability <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Food market stability: A necessary step for global social and environmental sustainability</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/31" hreflang="zxx">Pablo Elverdin </a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/96" hreflang="zxx">Martín Piñeiro</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/102" hreflang="zxx">Valeria Piñeiro</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/103" hreflang="zxx">Estefania Puricelli</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/104" hreflang="zxx">Marcelo Regunaga </a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/105" hreflang="zxx">Federico Villarreal</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Mon, 08/31/2020 - 10:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"> <img alt="Foto ifpri Angela Sevin" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="312162cd-940d-4578-a4fb-942ae4a376d0" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/foto%20ifpri%20food%20availability.jpg" /> <figcaption>Photo credit: <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/angela7/2228825069/">Angela Sevin</a></figcaption> </figure> <p>When we think about food price stability, we typically only think about its impact on food security. However, variations in food markets also affect the ways in which these foods are produced. In many regions of the world, crop production occurs under intensive production systems that deteriorate natural resources and contribute to global warming. It is clear that more sustainable, environmentally friendly production systems are needed. Thus, efforts to increase food production in order to achieve global food security should involve a careful, integrated, collaborative approach to ensure the efficient and sustainable use of land, water, and energy at the global level.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; margin-top:29px; width:336.8pt; height:104.4pt; z-index:251659264; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-top:solid #4472c4 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0in 8.0pt 0in"> <p style="border:none; padding:0in"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#4472c4">“A smooth global food trading system that makes markets more predictable can both facilitate improved food security and support more sustainable production systems”</span></span></span></span></i></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Given that regional food production and consumption imbalances are, and will continue to be, very relevant, trade plays a crucial role in addressing this challenge. A smooth global food trading system that makes markets more predictable can both facilitate improved food security and support more sustainable production systems. However, global agricultural trade continues to be seriously limited by harmful trade policies. In the midst of the COVID-19 crisis, some countries have rapidly taken measures that <u><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/mar/26/coronavirus-measures-could-cause-global-food-shortage-un-warns" target="_blank">negatively impact international trade flows and food availability and that generate greater food price variability</a></u>. These types of measures are inconsistent with global food security goals, as well as with the need to tackle natural resource deterioration.</p> <p>Despite its increasing importance, the promotion of sustainable food systems for global food security has not been considered seriously enough by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in international trade negotiations in recent decades. Global leaders need to pay more attention to the extent to which <strong>trade barriers not based on evidence</strong> are negatively affecting food security, global warming, and natural resource availability.</p> <p>In the context of this weakened international dialogue, the G20 could play an important role by promoting policies and measures to facilitate dialogue and information exchange and to foster agreements between food trading partners based on a more open global trading system. As such, the <strong>T20</strong> prepared a <u><a href="https://www.g20-insights.org/policy_briefs/food-security/" target="_blank">Policy Brief</a></u> for the current Saudi Arabia G20 presidency suggesting a strategy for <strong>more sustainable agricultural trade and development</strong>. The brief put forth <strong>two proposals </strong>covering improvements in sustainable crop production and the promotion of information exchange to foster trade agreements between food trading partners.</p> <p>The first proposal relates to <strong>the need to increase agricultural productivity and total food availability</strong> while taking into account the impact of agricultural production systems on climate change and natural resource sustainability. Some countries have implemented technological innovations and production processes that have increased competitiveness and productivity through environmentally friendly production systems. Some of these technologies and strategies could be adopted globally. To do so, however, it will be necessary to systematize a large amount of information and to develop a coordinated global strategy. Improvements in the measurement of sustainable crop production practices, such as no-till and cover crop practices, will be needed, as will further research into the accurate measurement of productivity, soil recovery, water availability in relation to cultivated land, and overall arable land availability.</p> <p>The second proposal relates to the two main elements needed to achieve environmentally sustainable food security: <strong>balanced and sustainable global production systems and a smooth agricultural trading system</strong>. Current trade tensions between the USA and China have introduced volatility, uncertainty, and trade diversion into certain food commodity markets. For example, the price and quantity of soybeans exported by Brazil to China were significantly affected by the import tariff imposed by China on USA imports (<u><a href="https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=93389" target="_blank">Gale, Valdes and Ash, 2019</a></u>). Given the present situation created by the COVID-19 crisis and its potential negative consequences, such as additional restrictions to trade, it will be crucial for policymakers to understand the potential impacts on food security in net importing countries and on macroeconomic stability in food exporting countries.</p> <p>One way to do so would be for the G20 to <strong>create and facilitate a special group of member countries</strong> within the WTO with high interest in agricultural trade and environmental sustainability. This group would be aimed at promoting dialogue, discussing proposals and progress in special trading agreements to facilitate agri-food trade, and promoting environmentally sustainable practices. The G20’s Agricultural Market Information System (<u><a href="http://www.amis-outlook.org/" target="_blank">AMIS</a></u>) could be used to create this group and <strong>generate a space for dialogue and the collection of relevant information</strong>, such as sustainability indicators.</p> <p>Similarly, <u><a href="https://www.earthobservations.org/geoglam.php" target="_blank">GEOGLAM</a></u>, another G20 initiative, could be used to <strong>measure carbon sequestration and balance </strong>using earth observation technologies at a global and national level.</p> <p>A smooth global food trading system brings with it several important environmental and food security contributions. These contributions justify all possible efforts to sustain and strengthen global governance systems, such as the WTO, that contribute to a vibrant multilateral trading system serving all countries and encouraging a more viable and prosperous world.</p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Pablo Elverdin" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="34ff803d-8f78-4658-aba1-9e2eab7eb6ac" height="118" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Foto%204x4.%20Elverdin.jpg" width="116" class="align-left" /><strong>Pablo Elverdin</strong> is coordinator of strategy and content for the Group of Southern Producing Countries (GPS) and has been an external consultant for the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), among other international organizations.</p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Martin Piñeiro" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="aee91679-1ee1-4a10-91ec-b827a23d1181" height="115" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Pineiro_0.jpg" width="115" class="align-left" /><strong>Martin Piñeiro</strong> graduated from the University of Buenos Aires and holds a Ph.D from the University of California. Dr. Piñeiro is Director of the CEO Group, Chair of the Committee on Agriculture of the Argentine Council of International Relations (CARI), Argentina. He is a member of the GPS Network, and Special Adviser to IICAs DG.  Previously, he was Undersecretary, for Agriculture, Argentina, Director General of the Interamerican Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA),  Member Board of Trustees and Chair of Program Committee of the International Service for Agricultural Research (ISNAR), and Board Chair  International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).</p> <p><img alt="Valeria Piñeiro" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6fb980db-6601-4cac-aee4-ee15eee89c58" height="113" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Valeria%20pi%C3%B1eiro.jpg" width="112" class="align-left" /><strong>Valeria Piñeiro</strong> is a Senior Research Coordinator at the International Food and Policy Research Institute. She is also a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University Advanced Academic Programs. She has also consulted for many organizations, including the World Bank.</p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Estefania Puricelli " data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="0e820289-08d6-4bb7-9ffe-4cb0e7de5735" height="142" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Estefania%20Puricelli.png" width="117" class="align-left" /><strong>Estefania Puricelli</strong> has a Master’s in Agricultural Economics from the University of London, a degree in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management as well as a degree in Economics, both from the University of Buenos Aires. Estefania manages and coordinates the monthly AMIS Market Monitor report, the primary product of AMIS, a G-20 initiative.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Federico Villarreal" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="60c92e1b-f71b-447a-925f-a3506990891f" height="121" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Federico%20Villarreal_0.jpg" width="121" class="align-left" /><strong>Federico Villarreal</strong> is Ph.D. in Geography from the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and M.Sc. in Agrarian Social Studies from the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences. Dr. Villarreal is currently director of Technical Cooperation at the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA). </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Note: This a cross-post that originally appeared published in: </strong><br /> <strong><a href=" http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/food-market-stability-necessary-step-global-social-and-environmental-sustainability">http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/food-market-stability-necessary-step-global-social-and-environmental-sustainability</a>. </strong></p> <p><strong>The opinions expressed in this article are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of IICA.</strong></p> <p><strong><img alt="Banner about the editors" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="271a9732-5d25-4ba2-ad5a-43247d27e9a8" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/banner%20about%20the%20editors_0.JPG" /></strong></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/trade-covid19" hreflang="en">TRADE-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=89&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="Hzjwd4_pkRltN1b0xpXVE6fjc3C7IEXr3k57eywkC6A"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 31 Aug 2020 16:00:19 +0000 jarias 89 at https://blog.iica.int ¿Llegó el momento de la mujer rural y el pequeño productor? https://blog.iica.int/index.php/blog/llego-momento-mujer-rural-pequeno-productor <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">¿Llegó el momento de la mujer rural y el pequeño productor? </span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/89" hreflang="zxx">Cecilia López Montaño</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 07/30/2020 - 13:24</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><wrapblock><shape filled="f" id="Text_x0020_Box_x0020_2" 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stroked="f" style="position:absolute; left:0; text-align:left; margin-left:205px; margin-top:29px; width:344.3pt; height:123.2pt; z-index:251658241; v-text-anchor:top" type="#_x0000_t202"> <textbox> </textbox></shape></wrapblock></span></span></span></p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #6481b8 3.0pt; border-top:solid #6481b8 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0cm 8.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; padding:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#6481b8">“Al haberse visibilizado la importancia de lo que ya no se denomina trabajo doméstico sino como la economía del cuidado no remunerado [Carrasco et al. 2011], se abre a la mujer rural la posibilidad de ser reconocida como un actor invaluable en medio de esta crisis”</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img"> <img alt="Luchadoras" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1b89866c-3a5c-4f25-b898-e51b5cf1696e" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/foto-libroEspanol-luchadoras.jpg" /> <figcaption>Foto: Luchadoras - Mujeres rurales en el mundo. Libro editado por el Instituto IICA: <a href="http://mujeresrurales.iica.int/">http://mujeresrurales.iica.int/</a></figcaption> </figure> <p><br /> Parecería una contradicción plantear que la mujer rural y los pequeños productores del campo pueden lograr ese <strong>reconocimiento </strong>que nunca han tenido, ahora cuando América Latina solo presenta pérdidas por la crisis generada por el Covid-19. Sin embargo, por aventurado que parezca, sí<strong> hay elementos que permiten</strong> reconocer esta posibilidad. Sería el principio de un <strong>proceso justo postergado por décadas</strong>, que ha generado inmensos costos a estos grupos de población, pero también a la sociedad latinoamericana. </p> <p> </p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #6481b8 3.0pt; border-top:solid #6481b8 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0cm 8.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; padding:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#6481b8">Esta [crisis] es sin duda la gran oportunidad para que se reconozca la inmensa contribución de la mujer a la economía y al bienestar; una actividad que ocupa una parte muy significativa de su tiempo.</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br clear="ALL" /> Es un hecho real que las dos únicas actividades que <strong>no se detuvieron</strong> en los momentos del confinamiento total de la población fueron precisamente el <strong>cuidado</strong>, remunerado y no remunerado, que ejercen mayoritariamente las mujeres, y la <strong>producción de alimentos</strong> que entre el 30% y el 60% proviene de millones de <strong>pequeños agricultores</strong> (RIMISP 2020a). El cuidado pasó a ser el gran protagonista de esta pandemia por razones evidentes: millones de latinoamericanos contaminados por este virus están siendo cuidados prioritariamente por mujeres<sup>1</sup>. El 70% del personal de la salud, cuidado remunerado, son <strong>mujeres </strong>(UNWomen 2020). Sin duda, esta realidad innegable significa un quiebre histórico para este <strong>trabajo </strong>que ha sido <strong>subestimado, subvalorado, e ignorado </strong>por los economistas. Esta es sin duda la gran oportunidad para que se reconozca la <strong>inmensa contribución de la mujer</strong> a la economía y al bienestar (López M. 2018); una actividad que ocupa una parte muy significativa de su tiempo.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>Algo similar sucede con la oferta de <strong>alimentos </strong>que en una<strong> alta proporción</strong> proviene de los <strong>pequeños productores</strong> rurales. No obstante la precariedad de las condiciones de vida de la población rural aun antes del Covid-19, "los sistemas agroalimentarios de América Latina han respondido de manera eficiente a las circunstancias de la pandemia, garantizando la seguridad y soberanía alimentaria" (RIMISP 2020a). De hecho, su <strong>respuesta </strong>fue adecuada "frente a una demanda que se aceleró por el temor de la población al inicio de la emergencia" (<em>Ibid</em>.). Según la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) más de <strong>123 millones</strong> de personas viven en <strong>zonas rurales</strong> en América Latina y el Caribe, y en medio del <strong>Coronavirus</strong>, han generado la <strong>oferta alimentaria</strong> para una población de 500 millones ubicados en las zonas urbana de la región (Statista 2020). Sin embargo, este inmenso aporte no ha recibido el suficiente <strong>reconocimiento </strong>y menos aún, el <strong>apoyo necesario</strong> por parte de los diferentes gobiernos (País, El 2020).</p> <p>En toda la región, <strong>el campo enfrentó el reto de la seguridad alimentaria</strong> de poblaciones urbanas confinadas, y cuyas condiciones de vida se han visto limitadas por las pérdidas de empleo e ingresos. A pesar de esta oportuna contribución, se ha evidenciado la persistencia de la <strong>brecha rural-urbana</strong>, pero más importante aún, el inmenso <strong>potencial </strong>que tiene el <strong>campo </strong>para la <strong>reactivación </strong>de las economías. Es por ello por lo que el <strong>reposicionamiento</strong> de la producción de los <strong>pequeños productores rurales </strong>debe ser <strong>prioritario </strong>en las <strong>políticas públicas</strong> de todos los gobiernos.  </p> <p><strong>MUJER RURAL: SU CONTRIBUCIÓN EN LA PANDEMIA </strong></p> <p>La <strong>mujer rural</strong> entra a la pandemia en serias condiciones de <strong>vulnerabilidad </strong>que se <strong>agudizan </strong>con el avance del <strong>Covid-19</strong>: <strong>poca oferta</strong> de <strong>capacitación</strong>, menor acceso a la <strong>tierra</strong>, estrechez <strong>económica </strong>(RIMISP 2020b). Al ser históricamente responsables por el cuidado de su familia, y con frecuencia de su comunidad, se enfrentan a <strong>inmensas demandas con limitaciones</strong> que hoy dificultan aún más sus labores. Deben responder por dos <strong>retos adicionales</strong>: </p> <ul> <li>el <strong>cuidado </strong>de los enfermos que crece día a día y </li> <li>mayor tiempo dedicado a atender la <strong>educación </strong>de sus <strong>hijos </strong>en el hogar porque han dejado de asistir a la escuela; además, esta última tarea con serias <strong>limitaciones de conectividad</strong> o carencia de celulares inteligentes.</li> </ul> <p>A esto se suman <strong>frenos </strong>en su <strong>actividad productiva</strong>: <strong>temor </strong>de salir a cosechar, poco <strong>acceso </strong>al <strong>agua </strong>y a <strong>herramientas tecnológicas</strong>, dificultad para <strong>vender </strong>sus productos, parálisis de actividades de <strong>turismo </strong>y de <strong>servicios </strong>en pequeñas veredas y pueblos donde participan. En el caso específico de El Salvador, aunque se repite en muchos otros países, el 82.42% de las mujeres ocupadas realizan su trabajo en esos sectores, lo que se traduce en <strong>disminución </strong>de sus <strong>ingresos </strong>(<em>Ibid</em>.).</p> <p>Como la pandemia "está llegando al campo o llegará, las dificultades son diferentes a los [problemas] de hacinamiento en zonas urbanas" (UNDP 2020). En zonas rurales de Colombia una de las principales actividades que realizan muchas mujeres para apoyar mecanismos de protección de sus áreas para evitar el contagio de zonas urbanas aledañas es la <strong>Organización Social</strong> (FIP 2020) y esta actividad se está viendo de la misma manera en otros países.  Ante la <strong>carencia de acción estatal</strong> y frente al <strong>avance de la pandemia</strong>, son <strong>ellas</strong>, más sensibles a los problemas de salud que los hombres, quienes han tomado este tipo de valiosas <strong>iniciativas</strong>. </p> <p>Al haberse visibilizado la importancia de lo que ya no se denomina <em>trabajo doméstico</em> sino como la <em>economía del cuidado no remunerado</em> (Carrasco et al. 2011), se abre a la <strong>mujer rural</strong> la posibilidad de ser reconocida como un <strong>actor invaluable</strong> en medio de esta <strong>crisis</strong>. A pesar de las dificultades para realizar sus actividades productivas, las mujeres rurales forman parte de los productores del campo que alimentan a los habitantes de las ciudades latinoamericanas.</p> <p><strong>PEQUEÑO PRODUCTOR RURAL: SU CONTRIBUCIÓN EN LA PANDEMIA.</strong></p> <p>Hasta ahora, el Covid-19 se ha identificado como fundamentalmente urbano, pero sorprendentemente, la dinámica de la <strong>pequeña agricultura</strong> captó el momento y la gran necesidad y <strong>se movilizó</strong> para <strong>garantizar la oferta de alimentos</strong> perecederos a las urbes latinoamericanas. El surgimiento de <em><strong>circuitos cortos alternativos de comercialización </strong></em>que han establecido vínculos entre consumidores y productores son eficientes, pero sobre todo una <strong>creativa respuesta</strong> y un invaluable aporte del campo a las ciudades. Ejemplos claros de la existencia de estos mecanismos de comercialización de productos agropecuarios se han identificado en Ecuador, Bolivia, y Chile (RIMISP 2020a).</p> <table align="center" class="TableGrid1" style="width:95.2%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="95%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid #fdfdfd; width:12%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid #fdfdfd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right; margin-bottom:8px"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="ES-AR" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="ES-AR" xml:lang="ES-AR"><span style="line-height:107%"><img alt="Fotos circuitos cortos" id="Picture_x0020_2" 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" style="width:59.5pt; height:89pt" /> </span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:2px solid #fdfdfd; width:87%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:2px solid #fdfdfd; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="left" style="margin-bottom:12px; text-align:left"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span lang="ES" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="line-height:107%">VER TAMBIÉN </span></span><br /> <u><span lang="ES-AR" style="font-size:11.0pt" xml:lang="ES-AR" xml:lang="ES-AR"><span style="line-height:107%"><a href="https://blog.iica.int/blog/circuitos-cortos-mercados-itinerantes-como-alternativas-sostenibles-comercializacion" style="color:#718cc1; text-decoration:underline"><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Circuitos cortos y mercados itinerantes como alternativas sostenibles de comercialización</span></span></span></a></span></span></u></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>En Colombia, estos <strong>esfuerzos </strong>han sido <strong>realizados por los mismos productores </strong>con poco apoyo del gobierno, que en muchas ocasiones, no ha actuado para prevenir el contagio de los campesinos en los centros de acopio de grandes ciudades. Las iniciativas para <strong>descentralizar centros de acopio</strong> en lugares más pequeños y equidistantes entre proveedores rurales y consumidores en las urbes han surgido más de mandatarios regionales. Sin embargo, la <em>Convocatoria de Asociaciones Campesinas</em> reúne 300 organizaciones locales, 169 regionales, 62 nacionales, y está abriendo canales para <strong>acercar la oferta de alimentos a la demanda urbana</strong> de una manera directa y segura. </p> <p>Estas <strong>iniciativas </strong>de <strong>métodos alternativos</strong> para establecer <strong>canales </strong>entre la oferta y la demanda de alimentos que han surgido o se han ampliado con el Covid-19, representan la <strong>oportunidad </strong>para cerrar la inmensa <strong>brecha rural-urbana</strong>. Las razones para ello parten de reconocer que la r<strong>ecesión económica</strong> en la <strong>post pandemia </strong>tendrá gran impacto sobre el poder adquisitivo y hará que los <strong>consumidores </strong>de las ciudades sean muy <strong>sensibles </strong>a los <strong>precios</strong>. De hecho, los <strong>circuitos cortos</strong> de productos primarios y artesanales son los que mejor pueden responder a este tipo de demandas. Adicionalmente, mayor <strong>sensibilidad a la nutrición</strong> y a la salud se traducirá en un aumento de la demanda por productos de la <strong>agricultura </strong>más <strong>ecológica (</strong>RIMISP 2020a). </p> <p> </p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div> <div style="border-bottom:solid #6481b8 3.0pt; border-top:solid #6481b8 3.0pt; border-left:none; border-right:none; padding:8.0pt 0cm 8.0pt 0cm"> <p style="border:none; padding:0cm; text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:15.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#6481b8">“es hora de pensar en el campo donde la mujer y los pequeños productores rurales se la han jugado por ayudar en medio de la crisis”</span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><br clear="ALL" /> El <strong>Covid-19</strong> ha <strong>cambiado </strong>definitivamente el <strong>mundo</strong>; pero no solo el urbano donde se centran los esfuerzos por la gente. Sin embargo, es hora de <strong>pensar en el campo</strong> donde   la mujer y los pequeños productores rurales se la han jugado por <strong>ayudar en medio de la crisis</strong>. Estos <strong>actores </strong>son <strong>vitales para </strong>las <strong>urbes latinoamericanas</strong>, y por ello, la <strong>prioridad </strong>debe ser cuidarlos, <strong>protegerlos </strong>para que esta pandemia no les llegue, y para que no se frene <strong>la dinámica que han generado</strong>, porque son transcendentales para la vida y para la <strong>reactivación económica</strong> en la post pandemia. </p> <p>---------------------</p> <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><span lang="ES-TRAD" style="font-size:8.0pt" xml:lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><sup>1 </sup>De los casos activos de siete países (234,896), </span><span lang="ES" style="font-size:&#10;8.0pt;mso-ansi-language:ES" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES">194,539 están atendidos en casa, es decir, 83% </span><!--[if supportFields]><span lang=ES style='font-size:8.0pt;mso-ansi-language:ES'><span style='mso-element: field-begin'></span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>ADDIN EN.CITE <span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA <![if gte mso 9]><xml> 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</xml><![endif]><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span><span style='mso-element:field-separator'></span></span><![endif]--><span lang="ES" style="font-size:8.0pt;mso-ansi-language:ES" xml:lang="ES" xml:lang="ES"><span style="mso-no-proof:yes">[MINSAPa 2020; MINSAPe 2020; MINSACr 2020; MINSAEc 2020; MINSACu 2020; MinSalud 2020; SecSaludHo 2020; Worldometers 2020]</span><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> 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style="width:73.5pt; height:73.5pt" /> </span></span></span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-bottom:none; width:81%; padding:0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm; border-top:none; border-right:2px solid #d0cece; border-left:2px solid #d0cece"> <p align="left" style="text-align:left"><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Cecilia López Montaño </span></span></i></b><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">es economista y política colombiana. Ha sido Ministra de Agricultura, Ministra de Medio Ambiente, Directora de Planeación Nacional y Senadora de la República.</span></span></i></span></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>Nota</em>: Las opiniones expresadas en este blog son responsabilidad del autor y no reflejan necesariamente la opinión del IICA.</strong></p> <p><br /> <br /> <strong>BIBLIOGRAFÍA</strong></p> <ul> <li>Carrasco, Cristina; Cristina Borderías; y Teresa Torns. 2011. "Introducción. el Trabajo de Cuidados: Antecedentes Históricos y Debates Actuales." En El Trabajo de Cuidados: Historia, Teoría y Políticas, ch. 13-95: 1-96. Madrid: Libros de la Catarata. En URL: https://cutt.ly/srBSlJx.</li> <li>Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural (RIMISP). 2020a. "Circuitos Alternativos de Comercialización en el Marco de la Crisis del Covid-19." En Análisis de Coyuntura COVID-19 en América Latina. no. 6, Análisis: 1-12. [Junio 5], Online: RIMISP. En URL:https://tinyurl.com/y8za8f5w.</li> <li>       ----- (RIMISP). 2020b. "Mujeres Frente al Covid-19. Elementos para Comprender la Situación de El Salvador." En Análisis de Coyuntura COVID-19 en América Latina. no. 8, Análisis: 1-9. [Julio 2], Online: RIMISP. En URL:https://tinyurl.com/ybc52upb.</li> <li>El País (País, El). 2020. "Las Comunidades Rurales en América Latina se Enfrentan al Avance del Coronavirus." Autor: Torrado, Santiago; Federico Rivas Molina; Jacqueline Fowks; y Naiara Galarraga Gortázar, en Sociedad. [Junio 6], Madrid: Grupo PRISA. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/y9kpapmh.</li> <li>La Fundación Ideas para la Paz (FIP). 2020. "Así Enfrentan las Mujeres Rurales el Confinamiento por el Covid-19." Autor: Cuellar, Laura C.; Martha Cáceres; y Fanny Escobar, En FIP OPINA. Opinión: 1-1. [Junio 5], Online: FIP. En URL:https://tinyurl.com/yc8ncr77.</li> <li>López M., Cecilia. 2018. "Bases para un Modelo de Desarrollo con Equidad de Género." En Género, Paridad, y Gestión de Riesgo y de Desastres. 1a. ed.: 25-36. Lima: Flora Trsitán.</li> <li>Ministerio de Salud (MINSAPa), Panamá. 2020. "Comunicado." no. 131: 1-2, [Julio 4], Online: República de Panamá. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/y9kcwhy5.</li> <li>       ----- (MINSAPe), Perú. 2020. "Sala Situacional Covid-19 Perú." 1-1, [Julio 6], Online: República del Perú. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/rjrlo26.</li> <li>       ----- (MINSACr), Costa Rica. 2020. "Situación Nacional Covid-19." 1-5, [Julio 6], Online: República de Costa Rica. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/yawe9mho.</li> <li>Ministerio de Salud Pública (MINSAEc), Ecuador. 2020. "El Msp Informa: Situación Coronavirus Covid-19 (06-07-2020)." no. 130: 1-1, [Julio 6], Online: República del Ecuador. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/y8dgsfa6.</li> <li>       ----- (MINSACu), Cuba. 2020. "Parte de Cierre del Día 5 de Julio a las 12 de la Noche." Comunicado de prensa: 1-2, [Julio 5], Online: República de Cuba. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/yc4rputy.</li> <li>Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social (MinSalud), Colombia. 2020. "Situación Actual: Nuevo Coronavirus (Covid-19)." 1-3, [Julio 5], Online: República de Colombia. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/yc7cz7eq.</li> <li>Secretaría de Salud (SecSaludHo), Honduras. 2020. "Unidad de Vigilancia de la Salud Boletín Covid-19, Honduras 05 de Julio de 2020." Boletín: 1-5, [Julio 5], Online: República de Honduras. En URL: https://tinyurl.com/y9x4a5w4.</li> <li>Statista (Statista). 2020. "¿Qué Impacto Económico Tendrá el Coronavirus en América Latina?" Autor: PPasquali, Marina, En El nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) – Datos estadísticos. [Marzo 26], Online: Statista. En URL:https://tinyurl.com/yaapdesp.</li> <li>UN Development Programme (UNDP). 2020. Respuesta a la Pandemia de Covid-19 en Poblaciones Urbano-Marginales y Rurales en América Latina. Autor: Castro, Arachu, Blog: 1-8. [Abril 15], Online: UNDP. En URL https://tinyurl.com/y7ls9x7o.</li> <li>UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UNWomen). 2020. Covid-19: Un Lugar Protagónico para las Mujeres. En Noticias: 1-3. [Marzo 20], Online: UNWomen Colombia. En URL https://cutt.ly/rystW5g.</li> <li>Worldometers (Worldometers). 2020. "Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic." Report: 1-22. [July 6], Online: Dadax Limited. En URL:https://tinyurl.com/ub9gvyc.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/gender" hreflang="en">GENDER</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=78&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="bPC0wlmetWMlFz2u3Lr7-HcZhAujK2ukGD37dnhdkyM"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 18:15:57 +0000 vpalmieri 78 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/llego-momento-mujer-rural-pequeno-productor#comments Reflexiones sobre la Agricultura Familiar en la época de Covid-19 https://blog.iica.int/index.php/blog/reflexiones-sobre-agricultura-familiar-en-epoca-covid-19 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Reflexiones sobre la Agricultura Familiar en la época de Covid-19</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/43" hreflang="zxx">Gastón López</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/7" hreflang="zxx">Daniel Rodriguez</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/44" hreflang="zxx">María Fernández</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/37" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">vpalmieri</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 05/12/2020 - 13:46</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Introducción</strong></p> <p>Este artículo busca reflexionar sobre los efectos e impactos del Covid-19 en la <strong>agricultura familiar de los Andes y la Amazonía en Perú</strong>, particularmente, sobre los cambios que se producirán en la demanda y oferta de productos provenientes del campo y sobre las repercusiones que tendrá en las <img alt="Abancay, Apurimac" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6b4fddc2-d767-4340-8d9d-efaeec06ee0b" height="288" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Foto%201%20AF%20Per%C3%BA.png" width="366" class="align-right" /><strong>técnicas de producción</strong>, en la <strong>demanda de alimentos</strong> y en el <strong>marco institucional</strong>.</p> <p>En Perú existen <strong>2.2 millones de pequeños agricultores</strong>. Cerca de la mitad son pobres y la tercera parte de las unidades las conducen mujeres. Gran parte son miembros de comunidades campesinas, nativas, asociaciones y cooperativas. Asimismo, están representados en organizaciones mayores a nivel de territorio, cuenca y país (nacional). En algunos casos se han organizado por producto (café, cacao, arroz, papa, etc.).</p> <p><strong>Durante la primera fase de la Pandemia, instituciones y personas tomaron varias acciones:</strong></p> <p>Las organizaciones de desarrollo suspendieron sus acciones en el campo. El teléfono y videoteléfono sustituyeron las visitas. Muchas comunidades <strong>cerraron vías de acceso</strong> terrestre y fluvial, evitando el ingreso de personas y así protegerse del contagio.</p> <p>Frente a la suspensión de clases en universidades e institutos y de las actividades laborales, un gran número de<strong> jóvenes regresaron</strong> a sus comunidades porque se sienten más seguros en el campo.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">En comunidades nativas de la Amazonía, muchas familias han optado por trasladarse al monte y establecer viviendas temporales ante el temor de contagio en sus comunidades y la pobre infraestructura sanitaria del entorno</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>En buen número de comunidades nativas de la Amazonía, muchas familias han optado por trasladarse al monte y establecer viviendas temporales ante el temor de contagio en sus comunidades y la pobre infraestructura sanitaria del entorno.</p> <p>Coincidiendo la cuarentena con la <strong>temporada de cosecha</strong>, se presentaron problemas en el transporte, lo cual viene generando <strong>disminución del precio</strong> en chacra. Organizaciones públicas están implementando actividades de apoyo, pero insuficientes.</p> <p> <br /> <strong>Cambios detectados y tendencias en la demanda y oferta de alimentos y en las tecnologías:</strong></p> <p>Un sector de consumidores buscará alimentos de mayor calidad y menos procesados. Debido a la disminución de ingresos económicos, la mayor parte de los <strong>hogares priorizarán la compra de alimentos</strong>. En segmentos pudientes, se incrementará la compra de productos orgánicos buscando una alimentación más nutritiva.</p> <p><img alt="Valle del Mantaro" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="34e292dd-27d9-4deb-b60f-16fc0adeea9e" height="302" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Foto%202%20AF%20Per%C3%BA.png" width="349" class="align-left" />Se observan <strong>nuevas estrategias de comercialización</strong> y canales de venta debido a que se restringirán las aglomeraciones por varios meses más después de la cuarentena. En los segmentos altos y medios se incrementará la venta a domicilio ofertándose “canastas” con diversos productos. En los sectores populares se ha incrementado la venta ambulatoria casa por casa.</p> <p>En el futuro se tendrán que <strong>implementar sistemas tecnológicos</strong> para el control y acompañamiento en campo a distancia. Esto va a acelerar la implementación de medios tecnológicos más eficientes en términos de costos y la necesidad de <strong>capacitar al personal de asistencia técnica</strong>.</p> <p>Entidades gubernamentales y no gubernamentales brindarán una <strong>mayor importancia a la alimentación y nutrición</strong> de las poblaciones tanto del campo como de la ciudad, destinando una mayor cantidad de recursos a proyectos de salud.</p> <p><br /> <strong>Algunas oportunidades y desafíos detectados para la Agricultura Familiar:</strong></p> <p>Las nuevas tendencias de mercado representarán una oportunidad para mantener la <strong>biodiversidad Andina y Amazónica </strong>y para la <strong>diversificación productiva</strong>. Hay evidencia científica que los <strong>sistemas de producción agroecológicos</strong> son claves para la <strong>resiliencia </strong>de la pequeña producción.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Las nuevas tendencias de mercado representarán una oportunidad para mantener la biodiversidad Andina y Amazónica y para la diversificación productiva.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Es muy importante hacer un análisis sobre la <strong>dinámica de los mercados</strong>: demanda, oferta, distribución física, mercadeo y precios. En algunas cadenas de valor los precios pueden incrementarse por una mayor demanda (quinua); otros productos pueden bajar de precio, como la papa, circunscrita a mercados locales en crisis.</p> <p><img alt="Canchis, Cusco" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b9b11323-6696-4e04-a542-48af8ab29105" height="302" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Foto%203%20AF%20Per%C3%BA.png" width="363" class="align-right" />Se implementarán <strong>plataformas de información productiva y comercial</strong>. Se podrán incrementar los servicios e-learning, adoptar tecnologías para <strong>seguimiento y control virtual</strong> de los cultivos y enfermedades. Se deberá cambiar la cultura de trabajo de técnicos, profesionales y personal administrativo. El teletrabajo será una tendencia importante.</p> <p>Las <strong>estrategias de extensión</strong> a través de <strong>líderes tecnológicos locales</strong> se presentan entre las mejores opciones de adaptación en contextos de aislamiento social. Ellos requerirán de un <strong>acompañamiento tecnológico intercultural</strong>. Es mejor que los técnicos de campo sean originarios de las comunidades, lo cual garantiza su permanencia y sostenibilidad.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">“Se necesitan metodologías participativas virtuales para mejorar la comunicación entre los actores y mantener la confianza.”</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Habrá oportunidades para promover o reforzar <strong>alianzas, redes y plataformas</strong> con organizaciones públicas y privadas para fortalecer las cadenas agroalimentarias. Se necesitan <strong>metodologías participativas virtuales</strong> para mejorar la comunicación entre los actores y mantener la confianza.</p> <p>El Estado deberá dar una mayor importancia a la <strong>Política Pública a favor de los agricultores de pequeña escala</strong>. Se debe visibilizar el aporte de la agricultura familiar a la seguridad y soberanía alimentaria del país. Es urgente que el Congreso apruebe el reglamento de la Ley de Promoción y Desarrollo de la Agricultura Familiar.</p> <p><strong>Reflexiones finales</strong></p> <p>Teniendo en cuenta que buena parte de la población rural es altamente vulnerable, no atender sus necesidades puede poner en riesgo su bienestar y la alimentación del país. Apremian <strong>medidas de apoyo</strong> como el bono rural, considerando el alto grado de pobreza existente.</p> <table class="TableGrid1" style="width:100.0%; border-collapse:collapse; border:none" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border-bottom:4px solid #4472c4; width:100%; padding:0cm 7px 0cm 7px; border-top:4px solid #4472c4; border-right:none; border-left:none" valign="top"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><i><span style="font-size:15.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:#3070b6">La pandemia representa una oportunidad de “acelerar cambios” para la agricultura familiar, con innovaciones económicas, tecnológicas y sociales alrededor de la organización productiva, los servicios de apoyo y el mercado</span></span></span></i></span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>La pandemia del Covid-19 representa una oportunidad de “acelerar cambios” para la agricultura familiar. Se generarán muchas innovaciones económicas, tecnológicas y sociales alrededor de la organización productiva, los servicios de apoyo y el mercado.</p> <p>Las <strong>barreras comerciales</strong> que afectan a los pequeños agricultores ponen en <strong>riesgo </strong>la producción <strong>agroecológica </strong>o <strong>limpia </strong>y el bienestar de un importante sector social. Los productores podrían incrementar el uso de agroquímicos debido a la desesperación por lograr mayores rendimientos.</p> <p>La suspensión de las actividades de los proyectos lleva a una revisión de las metas para no quebrar la confianza que se ha logrado. Es momento de iniciar los <strong>procesos de cambio utilizando las TIC</strong> para hacer <strong>diagnósticos rápidos y participativos</strong> de los proyectos en este nuevo escenario.</p> <p> </p> <p>* Para más información, acceda al <u><a href="https://blog.iica.int/sites/default/files/2020-05/Art%C3%ADculo%20Efectos%20Covid%2019%20completo.pdf">documento completo aquí</a></u>.<br />  </p> <p><em><strong>*Gastón López </strong>es consultor internacional, especialista en cadenas de valor, incidencia política, métodos participativos y promoción de plataformas de desarrollo para la innovación rural y agronegocios.<br /> <br /> <strong>*Daniel Rodríguez</strong> es sociólogo de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y M.A. en desarrollo agrícola y rural el Institute of Social Studies (ISS) y en el International Agricultural Center (IAC), Wageningen – Holanda.<br /> <br /> <strong>*María Fernández</strong> es PhD en Agricultura y M.A en Desarrollo Rural por la Universidad de Redding, Inglaterra.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>Nota</em>: Las opiniones expresadas en este Blog son responsabilidad del autor y no necesariamente reflejan la opinión del IICA.</strong></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/perspectives-covid-19" hreflang="en">PERSPECTIVES-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title">Blog comments</h2> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-66" about="/index.php/comment/66" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1588895751"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/66#comment-66" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Agricultura comercial</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=66&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="X1Osw1R_63-kWpgH2sEDBsyvrpko3ztfU-Iqjca4VIs"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Wilmer Vicente Prado Estrella</div> </div> <strong>Thu, 05/07/2020 - 17:07 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-05-07T23:07:33+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Importantes reflexiones sin duda, debo felicitar a los autores de este artículo que invita a pensar en voz alta, aquí van algunos de mis aportes:<br /> En realidad el producto de la cosecha de la agricultura familiar, termina siendo para autoconsumo o para ser comercializado en los mercados locales (a nivel distrital y provincial), dada esta particular coyuntura como una estrategia de supervivencia algunas familias consideradas como probres estasn enviando productos a sus familiares ubicados en las capitales de las regiones o Lima, es así que las municipalidades han puesto ha disposición sus vehículos de transporte para acopiar los productos en sus respectivas jurisdicciones para posteriormente trasladarlos,<br /> La mano de obra ha empezado a escacear, precisamente en este mes de mayo en las cuales estan concentradas el grueso de las cosechas; el servicio de transporte se ha vuelto escazo lo que ha provocado que los precios suban en las ciudades y que el producto cosechado se compre a precios más bajos. Urge implementar protocolos de bioseguridad para los estibadores y transportistas, ya que si la enfermedad llega al campo en este mes, se perderán muchos cultivos antes de ser cosechados, ya que no habrá mano de obra.<br /> Por otro lado se han implementado los mercados itinerantes, que todavía es una iniciativa que falta madurar, ya que no existe una amplia oferta de productos, y lo hacen aún con algunas imprefecciones en el tema de medidas para prevenir el contagio del COVID 19.<br /> Dada los altos niveles de contagio en la costa, los consumidores locales también optan por comprar productos vegetales de la sierra, esta es una gran oportunidad para los productores de la sierra, sean pequeños o medianos que hay que ir trabajándolo.<br /> Considero urgente fortalecer sistemas de asitencia técnica vía telefónica o virtualmente (el gobierno debe incrementar sus esfuerzos en masificar el servicio de internet a las localidades rurales), es momento propicio de digitalizar la moneda, ya que el dinero también se ha convertido en un medio de diseminar esta enfermedad. Los pequeños agricultores viven momentos difíciles, pero creo que esta coyuntura ayudará a profundizar los servicios de internet a los productores de la agricultura familiar.</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-67" about="/index.php/comment/67" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1589294731"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/67#comment-67" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Reflexiones sobre la Agricultura Familiar en la época de Covid-1</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=67&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="nHteuI2_BBMrwsfbusXqqrLcRjiFGY0RW4yMTbpYTxA"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">José Alfonso Heredia</div> </div> <strong>Tue, 05/12/2020 - 08:43 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-05-12T14:43:17+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Les felicito por la iniciativa de llevar esta temática al papel y difundirlo, ante todo por compartir reflexiones en una coyuntura como la que estamos viviendo, insondable al extremo. A continuación, les comento los razonamientos que me surgen luego de la lectura del artículo, aunque no cabe duda que hay trama para mucho más.</p> <p>Tema que más le llamó la atención<br /> Se vislumbra que el artículo ha sido preparado un poco rápido, a fin de responder al contexto de crisis que se genera a raíz de la cuarentena obligatoria. Del conjunto de temas que mencionan, hay uno que coincide con mis pensamientos recientes y es lo que deseo referirme. Lo he llamado ‘movimientos migratorios de retorno’. Desde el final de la guerra interna no vivimos algo así, pero ahora se ha generado de modo impensado y con un alcance aún no estimable. Todavía no podemos saber si estos movimientos alterarán la distribución demográfica en el territorio, pero lo que sí harán es incidir en los mercados de trabajo locales, que ya se encuentran estresados, además, por supuesto, de diseminar el virus en sus ámbitos de reasentamiento.</p> <p>Temas vinculados a la agricultura familiar en este nuevo contexto, en los que deberíamos ampliar o profundizar<br /> Si se concibe seguir trabajando el tema general del artículo, resultará recomendable que recaben información estadística de sustento, al menos de lo estuviera disponible de fuentes verificables. Por ejemplo, se observa que mencionan cifras globales de los pequeños productores (agricultura familiar), pero faltan datos gruesos para identificar los contextos económicos en que se desenvuelven esos productores: ámbitos de producción, productos o cadenas específicas, volúmenes de producción, precios en chacra y al por mayor en los principales mercados. Ciertamente, no podemos saber si esos datos estarán disponibles, pero se trata de una evidencia ineludible para sustentar afirmaciones sobre situaciones críticas, aunque también sobre oportunidades, algo en lo que se incide a lo largo del artículo. Sin evidencias de sustento, no pasará de ser una opinión de autores, sin el fundamento que busca ávidamente el diseñador o responsable de políticas. Es de imaginar conocidos agroeconomistas del medio ya están detrás de esos datos, con el fin de elaborar sesudas propuestas de política sectorial.<br /> Una segunda recomendación se orienta a otra fuente de información. Así, en el artículo se menciona que se trata de un documento basado en testimonios recogidos de actores públicos y privados vinculados al desarrollo rural. Al menos así se entiende. La impresión que se brinda en el desarrollo del texto, sin embargo, es que se ha razonado más desde el sector de los promotores privados del desarrollo, entiéndase ONG o cooperación técnica internacional. Se visualiza poco la opinión desde la política pública, sea subnacional o nacional. Ahora, pueda ser que esta opinión ni se haya empezado a formar, habida cuenta de la situación crítica que está enfrentado el aparato público realmente existente, en todos sus niveles de gobierno. En ese caso, cabe reflexionar sobre lo que se puede esperar realistamente del tipo de Estado vigente. Esta reflexión resulta inherente al fondo del artículo pues, siendo deseable aprovechar las oportunidades que brindará la crisis, no se puede saber si se estará a la altura de las circunstancias. Esto último se puede aplicar de igual modo a las organizaciones de productores agropecuarios, aunque en ese caso el debate puede tornarse aún más controversial.</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-533" about="/index.php/comment/533" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1624304496"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/533#comment-533" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">GESTIÓN DE INVERSIONES DE MARK DAVSON</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=533&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="FLVTo0rZcuuDDjW-F2haMwd60uP-Y830OWnQXf075uY"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">GESTIÓN DE INVERSIONES DE MARK DAVSON</div> </div> <strong>Mon, 06/21/2021 - 11:53 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2021-06-21T17:53:32+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Atención:</p> <p>Soy el Gerente de Administración de MARK DAVSON INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT.<br /> Somos una empresa de inversión financiera que busca empresas en las que invertir. Comuníquese con nosotros si está interesado.<br /> Además MARK DAVSON INVESTMENT MANAGEMEN busca personas y empresas que quieran ser nuestros representantes en sus países.<br /> ¿Interesado? Contáctenos hoy por correo electrónico: <a href="mailto:markdavsoninvestmentmanagement@yahoo.com">markdavsoninvestmentmanagement@yahoo.com</a></p> <p>Gracias<br /> Señor Mark Davson<br /> GESTIÓN DE INVERSIONES DE MARK DAVSON<br /> Correo electrónico: <a href="mailto:markdavsoninvestmentmanagement@yahoo.com">markdavsoninvestmentmanagement@yahoo.com</a></p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-536" about="/index.php/comment/536" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1624569826"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/536#comment-536" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">quisiera un informe sobre…</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=536&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="K1JjaJKbsRQq-903IZLeIIH52pXhJPR83xq00XjqY_8"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">sonia</div> </div> <strong>Thu, 06/24/2021 - 14:41 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2021-06-24T20:41:39+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>quisiera un informe sobre los aportes y desafíos de la extensión rural frente al covid 19 para la Argentina,</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=33&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="ImPsGPbN_ZXzsN8aUD8FSS9-rzWeJ3G1Q_PxUVa7dcY"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Mon, 04 May 2020 17:06:58 +0000 vpalmieri 33 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/reflexiones-sobre-agricultura-familiar-en-epoca-covid-19#comments Medidas de política y acciones del sector agroalimentario frente al COVID-19 https://blog.iica.int/index.php/blog/medidas-politica-acciones-del-sector-agroalimentario-frente-al-covid-19 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Medidas de política y acciones del sector agroalimentario frente al COVID-19</span> <div class="field field--name-field-autores field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Colaboradores</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/10" hreflang="zxx">Joaquín Arias</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/8" hreflang="zxx">Nadia Monge</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="zxx">Eugenia Salazar</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/39" hreflang="zxx">Daniel Rodríguez Sáenz</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/15" hreflang="zxx">Adriana Campos</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/14" hreflang="zxx">Viviana Palmieri</a></div> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 04/02/2020 - 12:28</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>En este espacio mantendremos actualizadas las medidas que están tomando los países para: 1)  mitigar los efectos del COVID-19 sobre el sector alimentario, y 2) medidas de preparación para acelerar la recuperación y continuidad de la actividad agroalimentaria luego de que se contenga la propagación del virus. Las medidas se clasifican en cuatro tipos:</p> <ol> <li>Políticas macroeconómicas y sociales - de tipo fiscal, monetarias y financieras</li> <li>Políticas comerciales</li> <li>Políticas horizontales de apoyo al sector - insumos - crédito - comercialización - inversión</li> <li>Políticas por cadenas agroalimentarias</li> </ol> <p>Una nube de palabras sobre los énfaisis en los enunciados de política de los países es:</p> <p><iframe frameborder="0" height="700" scrolling="no" src="https://public.flourish.studio/visualisation/2049160/" title="Nuve de palbras" width="100%"></iframe></p> <p>A continuación un cuadro interactivo con la sistematización de dichas medidas por países de las Américas en respuesta al COVID-19. La nube de palabras puede ser una guía que facilite  la búsqueda por temas o énfasis. <iframe frameborder="0" height="700" name="Politicas" scrolling="yes" src="https://public.flourish.studio/visualisation/1833130/" title="Respuesta de los países ante el COVID-19" width="100%" id="Politicas"></iframe></p> <div ccp_infra_copy_id="faf49914-3edd-4aee-a2c5-babdde992077" ccp_infra_timestamp="1586033756618" ccp_infra_user_hash="2087342880" ccp_infra_version="3" data-ccp-timestamp="1586033756618"> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/covid19" hreflang="en">COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/measures-covid19" hreflang="en">MEASURES-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/trade-covid19" hreflang="en">TRADE-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/commercialization-covid-19" hreflang="en">COMMERCIALIZATION-COVID-19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/food-security-covid19" hreflang="en">FOOD SECURITY-COVID19</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/en/tags/information-statistics" hreflang="en">INFORMATION-STATISTICS</a></div> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> <h2 class="title">Blog comments</h2> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-83" about="/index.php/comment/83" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1590983757"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/83#comment-83" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Felicitaciones Daniel y todo…</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=83&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="SDtCp-pKUyv12yzVaHjD8KDDwzjQ7Ul0OcXloOToS68"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Hernando Riveros</div> </div> <strong>Sun, 05/31/2020 - 21:53 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-06-01T03:53:39+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Felicitaciones Daniel y todo el equipo. Gran esfuerzo y muy útil.</p> <p>No encontré referencia para profundizar en la Guía Federal de Recursos Rurales de COVID-19 implementada en EEUU que entiendo apoya iniciativas de asociación para ayudar a abordar la pandemia. Agradeceré si me pueden facilitar alguna pista adicional a la que está en el cuadro interactivo. </p> <p>Buena semana</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <div class="indented"> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-84" about="/index.php/comment/84" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1591028430"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/84#comment-84" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Respuesta a mensaje Hernando Riveros</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=84&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="ToZLOXx6yhb7vp8eNbWVpCgicjw-mvTeJpPK0kz8KrM"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Daniel Rodíguez Sáenz</div> </div> <strong>Mon, 06/01/2020 - 10:16 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-06-01T16:16:49+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/index.php/comment/83#comment-83" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Felicitaciones Daniel y todo…</a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></p> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Estimado Hernando,</p> <p>Muchas gracias por los comentarios, en el siguiente link podrá encontrar la guía del “COVID-19 Federal Rural Resource”, esperamos sea de utilidad.</p> <p><a href="https://rd.usda.gov/sites/default/files/USDA_COVID-19_Fed_Rural_Resource_Guide.pdf">https://rd.usda.gov/sites/default/files/USDA_COVID-19_Fed_Rural_Resourc…</a> </p> <p>Saludos cordiales,</p> <p>Daniel Rodríguez S.</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-354" about="/index.php/comment/354" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1596550899"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/354#comment-354" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Consulta de Base de datos</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=354&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="QcyS7HJ1N1Nt4SLSp6M-RyQiPhDdP82EP4j8UxSxnGg"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Leonardo Martínez</div> </div> <strong>Mon, 08/03/2020 - 23:24 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-08-04T05:24:54+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Hola! Quisiera consultarles si la compilación de estas medidas pudiese estar disponible en un documento Excel o PDF</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <div class="indented"> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="36" id="comment-355" about="/index.php/comment/355" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-node-author clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1596554891"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/355#comment-355" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Medidas disponibles en Excel y PDF</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=355&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="KE6P1v4Kf_6kC4cVzpNW76r500x74OiSs7igbhccWUs"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Joaquin Arias</div> </div> <strong>Tue, 08/04/2020 - 09:28 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-08-04T15:28:11+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/index.php/comment/354#comment-354" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Consulta de Base de datos</a> by <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></p> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Estimado Leonardo:</p> <p>Gracias por el interés en nuestro trabajo.  Hemos agregado al final del artículo las opciones para bajar las medidas tanto en excel como en formato pdf.  También hacemos una sugerencia de cómo citar el trabajo  Esperamos sea de utilidad. </p> <p>Atentamente, </p> <p>Joaquín Arias</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> <div class="indented"> <article role="article" data-comment-user-id="0" id="comment-359" about="/index.php/comment/359" typeof="schema:Comment" class="comment js-comment by-anonymous clearfix"> <span class="hidden new-indicator" data-comment-timestamp="1596822961"></span> <div class="comment__content-container"> <h3 property="schema:name" datatype="" class="title"><a href="/index.php/comment/359#comment-359" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Consulta de Base de datos</a></h3> <nav class="comment__links"><drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderLinks" arguments="0=359&amp;1=default&amp;2=und&amp;3=" token="3yW9u6sXelnfW88a5AcPdH_CqEplBNa77txT6JYrsto"></drupal-render-placeholder></nav> <div class="comment__meta"> <div> <div class="field field--name-field-nombre field--type-string field--label-hidden field__item">Leonardo Martínez</div> </div> <strong>Fri, 08/07/2020 - 11:28 <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2020-08-07T17:28:58+00:00" class="rdf-meta hidden"></span> </strong> <p class="visually-hidden">In reply to <a href="/index.php/comment/355#comment-355" class="permalink" rel="bookmark" hreflang="und">Medidas disponibles en Excel y PDF</a> by <span lang="" about="/index.php/en/user/36" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">jarias</span></p> </div> <div class="comment__content"> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-comment-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Muchas gracias Sr. Joaquín Arias! Me ha sido de gran utilidad. </p> <p>Saludos,</p> <p>Leonardo Martínez</p> </div> </div> </div> </article> </div></div> <h2 class="title comment-form__title">Add new comment</h2> <drupal-render-placeholder callback="comment.lazy_builders:renderForm" arguments="0=node&amp;1=7&amp;2=field_blog_comments&amp;3=comment" token="3h2MLpIr9vIsNQ5sz4-Gx-WUb5ni1HFWKBdJltLMqbo"></drupal-render-placeholder> </section> Wed, 06 May 2020 00:23:27 +0000 jarias 7 at https://blog.iica.int https://blog.iica.int/index.php/en/blog/medidas-politica-acciones-del-sector-agroalimentario-frente-al-covid-19#comments